Open Questions: Supernovae

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See also: Stellar formation and evolution -- Neutron stars and pulsars -- Gamma-ray astronomy

Supernova 1994D in Galaxy NGC 4526

From the HubbleSite Gallery


Introduction

Hypernovae


Recommended references: Web sites

Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Recommended references: Books

Introduction



Recommended references: Web sites

Site indexes

Open Directory Project: Novae and Supernovae
Categorized and annotated links. A version of this list is at Google, with entries sorted in "page rank" order. May also be found at Netscape.
Galaxy: Novae and Supernovae
Categorized site directory. Entries usually include descriptive annotations.


Sites with general resources

Supernovae, Neutron Stars & Pulsars
Good explanations and external links, part of Gene Smith's Astronomy Tutorial.
Supernova and Supernova Remnant Pages on the WWW
Maintained by Marcos J. Montes.
Supernovae and their Remnants
Part of NASA's Imagine the Universe site. Contains basic information about supernovae, computer animations, and links to related topics. There is also a more advanced level page, and a page on supernova remnants.
Supernova
Short page at NASA with links to assorted pieces of information on supernovae.
Supernova animations
Also animations of pulsars and the Crab Nebula, at the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Center.


Surveys, overviews, tutorials

Supernova
Article from Wikipedia. See also Supernova remnant.
Supernovas
A ScienceWeek "symposium" consisting of excerpts and summaries of articles from various sources.
Supernovas & Supernova Remnants
Part of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Center site. Provides general information on supernovae.
Smoking Supernovae
Nice presentation of research reported in July 2003 about the production of cold cosmic dust in supernovae. The site contains a number of striking images of supernova remnants.
Starburst Galaxies and Supernovae
Brief, single-page overview.


Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

How to Blow Up a Star
Wolfgang Hillebrandt; Hans-Thomas Janka; Ewald Müller
Scientific American, September 2006
Explosive Tales
Ron Cowen
Science News, December 11, 2004
A modern look at two old supernovas
When Stars Explode
Alexei V. Filippenko
Astronomy, February 2003, pp. 42-47
Supernovae are categorized into two broad classes on the basis of the spectra. The spectra of Type I supernovae lack evidence of hydrogen, while spectra of Type II do not. Different mechanisms account for the two types, but subtypes exist within each type, so quite different processes may be at work for some events within the same type.
Supersoft X-ray Stars and Supernovae
Peter Kahabka, Edward P. J. van den Heuvel, Saul A. Rapport
Scientific American, February 1999, pp. 46-53
Binary star systems which include a white dwarf that accretes matter from its companion seem to be the explanation for so-called supersoft X-ray stars. Such systems probably result eventually in type Ia supernovae.
Ka-Boom! How Stars Explode
Robert Naeye
Astronomy, July 1997, pp. 44-49
A detailed understanding of the explosion process in supernovae is only now emerging. Neutrinos seem to play an important role in the process.
Supernovae
Hans A. Bethe
Physics Today, September 1990, pp. 24-27
There are two main types of supernovae: Type I, in which matter accreting on the surface of a white dwarf eventually produces an explosion, and Type II, in which very massive stars collapse at the end of their lives. There are in turn two possible mechanisms that may both be at work in supernovae of type II.
Bang: The Supernova of 1987
David Helfand
Physics Today, August 1987, pp. 25-32
Supernova 1987a is helping clarify our knowledge of supernovae that result from the collapse of massive stars. The data provided by neutrino observations is especially enlightening.


Recommended references: Books


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