Open Questions: The Early Universe
See also: Galaxy formation, structure, and evolution --
Quasars and active galactic nuclei
Sites with general resources
Ab initio Simulations of the Formation of the First Star in the
- The site summarizes summarizes research (published and ongoing) by
Greg Bryan, Mike Norman and Tom Abel on the formation and
evolution of the very first objects in the universe.
Contains visualizations such as dark matter and gas density.
Tom Abel's Home Page
- Contains links to assorted material associated with research into
the first stars and the early universe.
From Quantum Foam to Galaxies: Formation of the Large-Scale
Structure in the Universe
- Contains several pages discussing the formation of the
earliest galaxies and clusters. Includes computer simulations,
visualizations, and some
external links. Part of the
Center for Cosmological Physics site.
Hubble Ultra Deep Field
- News and information about the Hubble UDF project, which has
provided an image including objects from the very early universe.
Discovery of the Cosmic Reionization Era
- A page with some links and images related to the discovery
of the reionization era, provided by
LOFAR Home Page
- LOFAR is a new, extremely sensitive radio telescope which
will be used for studies of the very early universe. It is based
on simple antenna technology coupled with a very powerful
27.4 teraflop computer.
Surveys, overviews, tutorials
Astronomers seek to explore the cosmic Dark Ages
- October 2009 article about new radio telescopes designed to
study the early universe.
Astronomers Compete to Find the Farthest Galaxies
- September 2001
article from Space.com.
Discusses observational search for the earliest, most distant
visible objects in the universe.
Our Tangled Universe: How the First Galaxies Were Born
- May 2001
article from Space.com.
Discusses how threads and clumps of matter in the early universe
helped form the first galaxies.
A First Glimpse of the First Stars
- Article for a general audience on the formation and evolution of
the first stars, based on the research of Michael Norman, Thomas Abel,
and Greg Bryan.
A Non-Technical Introduction to Reionization and Recent
- An overview by
A more technical paper by the same author:
In the Beginning: The First Sources of Light and the Reionization
of the Universe.
- General information about the first stars in the universe, at
First Milky Way Galaxies Discovered
- January 2003 paper by
Rennan Barkana and
Avi Loeb about
formation of very early galaxies and dark matter halos around
The first objects in the universe
- Summary of February 2003 article from
Physics World, by
"Computer simulations and powerful telescopes allow us to
probe the first galaxies that formed in the universe and
investigate how they transformed neutral intergalactic gas
in the early cosmos into the hot, ionized plasma that we
The Cosmic Spectrum and the Color of the Universe
- Brief summary of research by Karl Glazebrook and Ivan Baldry
which is relevant to details of star formation early in the
history of the universe.
Cosmic CAT Scan
- August 2005 Scientific American In Focus article about
the Chinese Primeval Structure Telescope, a radio telescope
designed to gather information on the earliest generation of
Lighting the universe
Science News, July 30, 2011
- Rethinking what the first stars were like.
The Dark Ages of the Universe
Scientific American, November 2006
Mature Before Their Time
Science Week, March 1, 2003, pp. 139-140
- Recent observations suggest that there may have been galaxies
having characteristics of "old age" as early as 2 billion years
after the big bang. This is quite unexpected, but will be studied
intensively during the coming year by the Space Infrared Telescope
- Galaxy Hunters: The Search for Cosmic Dawn
National Geographic, February 2003, pp 2-29
- During the time from 100 million to 500 million years after
the big bang the first stars and galaxies formed. Computer
simulations indicate only very roughly how this occurred, and
observations are only now becoming possible in order
to determine more precisely what transpired during
this "dark age" of the universe.
Science Week, June 8, 2002, pp. 362-364
- Several hundred million years after the big bang, the universe's
first stars formed very suddenly. They had from 50 to 300 times the
mass of the sun and influenced the birth and evolution of galaxies.
- The First Stars in the Universe
Richard B. Larson; Volker Bromm
Scientific American, December 2001, pp. 64-71
- The first stars that formed in the early universe -- 100 or 200
million years after the big bang -- were quite
unlike typical stars today. Most were at least 100 times as massive
as the Sun, and at least a million times as luminous. Their effects
on the subsequent evolution of the universe were profound.
All Aglow in the Early Universe
Science Daily, May 27, 2000
- A. Weiss; T. Abel; V. Hill, eds. -- The First Stars
- This volume is the proceedings of a workshop held in
Garching, Germany in 1999. (The text is in English.) Although
intended for specialists, most of it is understandable by
anyone who has mastered a college astronomy course. The focus
of the workshop was on questions about the universe's first
stars to form after
the big bang -- which were very likely quite different from
stars that are currently observable. Such stars were probably
quite large (by comparison) and almost totally lacking in
Copyright © 2002 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved