Open Questions: AIDS

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See also: The immune system

Introduction


Recommended references: Web sites

Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Recommended references: Books

Introduction



Recommended references: Web sites

Site indexes

Epidemics and AIDS Links
A selective list of some of the larger and more comprehensive pages on the subject, by Paul Bugl.
Galaxy: AIDS and HIV
Categorized site directory. Entries usually include descriptive annotations.

Sites with general resources

New Scientist Special Report on HIV and AIDS
Primarily offers links to many news articles from the past several years of New Scientist magazine. But there are also other features, including facts and figures, external links, frequently-asked questions, and a short bibliography.
Center for HIV Information
Umbrella site for HIV/AIDS information, provided by the University of California at San Francisco. Resources include HIV Insite and information on experimental AIDS vaccines.
HIV Insite
A gateway to HIV and AIDS information. Includes a knowledge base of HIV/AIDS information, news, external links. Provided by the Center for HIV Information.
AIDSinfo
Information provided by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services about drugs, vaccines, clinical trials, and miscellaneous topics. Includes an extensive glossary and fact sheets.
Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Provides information and resources related to many aspects of AIDS & HIV. Part of the U. S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
HIV Vaccines
"This web site provides a comprehensive overview of AIDS vaccine discovery and development." The site is maintained by the Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. It includes a good tutorial on AIDS vaccine concepts and design. There is a related series of pages from the same organization on HIV Vaccines.
Johns Hopkins AIDS Service
Provides general information about AIDS and HIV. There is a nice description of the HIV life cycle, including a flash animation. Also includes questions and answers and a literature review.
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
"IAVI is a global not-for-profit organization working to speed the search for a vaccine to prevent HIV/AIDS, focusing on developing countries." The site includes information on the science of potential AIDS vaccines.

Surveys, overviews, tutorials

AIDS
Article from Wikipedia. See also Antiretroviral drug.
HIV and AIDS Tutorial
Excellent set of pages providing a tutorial on HIV and AIDS. Part of The Biology Project's section on Immunology.
AIDS
General overview of AIDS epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention, provided by the U. S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
The HIV-AIDS Connection
Short single-page summary of evidence for the connection between HIV and aids, provided by the U. S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The page refers to a collection of additional documents and resources related to this issue.
Basic Information About AIDS and HIV
Nice collection of brief tutorials on important aspects of AIDS and HIV.
Strategies for a Cure Based on Waking the AIDS Virus
July 2009 Scientific American article. "New weapons take aim at "latent reservoirs" by rousing the invader from its hiding spot in immune cells."
NIH Official: HIV Vaccine Research "Swimming in the Dark"
July 2008 Scientific American article. "NIAID director Anthony Fauci discusses AIDS vaccine."
Where is the AIDS Vaccine?
February 2008 Scientific American article, subtitled "Science gets closer, but a fully effective vaccine against HIV remains elusive."
T Cell Turnoff
November 2007 Scientific American article, subtitled "Can suppressing the immune system treat HIV infection?"
AIDS Vaccine Could Mimic Natural Immunity To HIV
Brief July 2007 Scientific American article. "Some individuals infected with HIV have a gene variant that keeps the virus in check. Researchers hope the natural protection could point the way to an AIDS vaccine."
Ten Years Later, AIDS Vaccine Search Continues
May 2007 Scientific American If Focus article, subtitled "Science gets closer, but a fully effective vaccine remains elusive."
HIV Plays Both Offense and Defense
April 2001 Scientific American news article about how HIV destroys immune system cells.
HIV's Gender Bias
March 2001 Scientific American news article about gender differences in the way HIV infection progresses.
A New AIDS Vaccine Candidate
March 2001 Scientific American news article about an experimental vaccine that prevents the development of AIDS in monkeys.
Why Haven't We Found an AIDS Vaccine?
February 2001 Scientific American article that offers opinions about the answers to the question.
New Protein Blocks HIV
January 2001 Scientific American news article about a protein that can inhibit HIV infection by blocking the virus's entry into cells.
Genetic Risk Factor for HIV Also Confers Benefit
November 2000 Scientific American news article about a variant of an immune system gene that both makes a person more susceptible to HIV infection and slows the progression of AIDS.
Promising AIDS Vaccine
October 2000 Scientific American news article about an experimental AIDS vaccine that prevented monkeys infected with a particularly deadly strain of HIV from becoming sick.
HIV outwits immune system, again
October 2000 news article in Science News, about mechanisms HIV uses to infect B cells.
B Cells May Help Maintain HIV Infection
August 29, 2000 news release on the role of immune system B cells in HIV infection.
HIV hitches a ride to get inside
March 2000 news article about how HIV uses dendritic cells to enter the body.
Cracking Open AIDS's Shell
July 1996 Scientific American In Depth article about the strucure of the HIV capsid protein.


Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Templates for a vaccine?
Quentin J. Sattentau; Andrew J. McMichael
The Scientist, October 2010
New tools for HIV-1 antibody-based vaccine design.
25 Years Later: Can HIV Be Cured?
Mario Stevenson
Scientific American, November 2008
Eliminating HIV from the body would require flushing the virus out of its hiding places and preventing those reservoirs from being refilled.
What Activates AIDS?
Damaris Christensen
Science Week, June 8, 2002, pp. 360-361
In spite of two decades of research, it is still not understood how the virus overcomes a person's immune system and why this happens in come cases but not others. But the search may be narrowing to the process called immune activation.
[References]
Merck's Mission: An AIDS Vaccine
Jon Cohen
Technology Review, March 2002, pp. 56-67
At the time in 1984 that HIV was identified as the probable cause of AIDS, it was hoped a vaccine might be ready for testing within two years. The problem proved much harder than expected. There are now a handful of vaccines in early clinical trials, and at least one major company -- Merck -- has committed a very substantial amount of resources to the effort.
Improving HIV Therapy
John G. Bartlett; Richard D. Moore
Scientific American, July 1998, pp. 84-93
AIDS has proven frustratingly difficult to develop therapies for, due to the rapid mutability of the HIV. But progess is being made using drugs that counteract the effects of HIV in a variety of ways.
HIV Vaccines: Prospects and Challenges
David Baltimore; Carole Heilman
Scientific American, July 1998, pp. 98-103
One of the reasons HIV is so difficult to deal with is that the body's natural immune responses do not destroy it. A successful vaccine for HIV will need to do more than generating antibodies.
In Search of AIDS-Resistance Genes
Stephen J. O'Brien; Michael Dean
Scientific American, September 1997, pp. 44-51
Genetic factors that confer some protection against AIDS are being discovered. The mechanisms of such protection may suggest approaches to treatment of the disease.


Recommended references: Books


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