Open Questions: Diet, Metabolism, and Health

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See also: Causes of aging -- The cardiovascular system -- Diabetes

Introduction

Fat and cholesterol

Vitamins, minerals, fiber, phytochemicals

Appetite regulation

Obesity

Caloric restriction and longevity

Healthy diet


Recommended references: Web sites

Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Recommended references: Books

Introduction



Recommended references: Web sites

Site indexes

Galaxy: Nutrition and Dietetics
Categorized site directory. Entries usually include descriptive annotations.


Sites with general resources

Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine
Web site of "a nonprofit organization that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research." PCRM is an advocacy organization which tends to oppose meat consumption, health fads, and (supposedly) unhealthful dietary habits promoted by fast food and agricultural industries. It sponsors other sites, such as The Cancer Project and Atkins Diet Alert.

Surveys, overviews, tutorials

Nutrition
Article from Wikipedia. See also: Illnesses related to poor nutrition, Metabolic syndrome, Obesity.
Cholesterol
Article from Wikipedia. See also: Lipoprotein, High density lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein, Triglyceride, Fatty acid
Is your brain making you fat?
January 2010 article from ABC Science. "We're getting fatter, but it's not all our fault, says physiologist Professor Michael Cowley."
The Skinny on Trans Fatty Acids
September 22, 2003 article from Chemical & Engineering News describing the chemistry of trans fatty acids and efforts to reduce their presence in processed foods.
À Votre Santé
July 2001 Scientific American News Scan article, subtitled "Should Physicians Tell Some Nondrinkers To Start?"
Apple Juice: It Does a Heart Good
February 2001 Scientific American news article about antioxidants in apple juice and grape juice.
What's Good about Garlic and Eggs
October 2000 Scientific American news article about possible beneficial effects of garlic on cancer and eggs on eye disease.

Caloric restriction

CR Society
A non-profit educational organization that promotes caloric restricted diet. The site contains quite a bit of information, as well as a FAQ list, recipes, external links, and book reviews. There is also an email discussion list.
Dr. Walford & Caloric Restriction
Home page of Roy Walford, promoting caloric-restricted diets. Contains some information, recipes, external links, but mostly promotes diet-related products.
Caloric restriction
Article from Wikipedia.
Some Non-Original Thoughts on Diet, Health, and Longevity
Very good overview of diet, from the point of view of caloric restriction for its potential longevity benefits, by Phil Graves.
Articles about Caloric Restriction with Adequate Nutrution
The articles include an overview and personal experiences, by Ben Best. The author also has some diet-related articles about health and nutrition.
Why Eating Less Means Living Longer
September 2000 article from ScienceNow about the relationship between longevity and genes for sirtuin proteins.
The Famine of Youth
June 2000 Scientific American article by Gary Taubes, subtitled "Severely restricting diet may increase life span, but few will be able to follow such a harsh regimen."
120 year diet
Transcript of April 2001 Australian TV show which presented an interview with Roy Walford.

Appetite regulation

Ghrelin
Single-page overview of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin.

Obesity

North American Association for the Study of Obesity
NAASO is a scientific organization for research on obesity. The site includes informational material and external links.
Association for the Study of Obesity
British organization that promotes research on causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity. The site includes general information and external links.
MedlinePlus: Obesity
Main page at MedlinePlus dealing with obesity. Includes external links of many types, such as news articles, overviews, clinical trials, research, genetics, statistics, and relevant organizations.
Obesity
Article from Wikipedia.
Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults
A report of the Obesity Education Initiative of the U. S. National Institutes of Health. Index. Part of the NCBI Bookshelf.
Understanding Adult Obesity
A fact sheet on obesity for the general public, provided by the U. S. National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive & Kidney Diseases.
Making Fat-proof Mice
November 2000 Scientific American news article about how targeting a fat-protecting protein known as perilipin may protect against obesity.
Fighting Fat with Protein
October 2000 Scientific American news article about a protein (uncoupling protein-1) that dissipates food energy instead of allowing it to be stored as fat.
Virus boosts fat in chickens and mice
August 2000 news article in Science News about research that showed an adenovirus injected into chickens and mice seems to result in additional body fat.
A switch that turns off fat
August 2000 news article about how Wnt-10b blocks pre-fat cells from becoming normal fat cells.
Infectious obesity
April 1997 news article in Science News about the finding of antibodies for an adenovirus in humans.
Viruses may leave a weighty legacy
April 1997 news article in Science News about a report that an infection by a virus can cause obesity as well as cholesterol and triglyceride problems.
Mice crash diet secret
July 2000 news article about an inhibitor of fatty acid synthetase that decreases appetite in animals.
Scientists find 'fat thermostat' in brain
September 1999 news article about how the hypothalamus regulates body weight.

Atkins diet

Atkins Diet Alert
Web site sponsored by Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. It promotes a skeptical attitude towards the Atkins diet.
Low Carbohydrate Diets
Transcript of an Australian radio interview with a scientist who raises concerns about low carbohydrate diets.


Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Bypass's Big Boon
Nathan Seppa
Science News, September 10, 2011
Scientists spot key players in surgery's surprising ability to reverse diabetes.
Hormones in Concert
Christian Weyer
The Scientist, December 2009
Multiple hormones act in concert to regulate blood sugar and food intake. The idea has already led to a new diabetes therapy; will it also yield new strategies for obesity?
The Skinny Fat
Bruce Spiegelman
The Scientist, January 2008
What if you could make fat cells burn energy rather than store it?
Spice Healer
Gary Stix
Scientific American, February 2007
Eat Your Way to Better DNA
Kate Travis
The Scientist, September 2006
Why what your grandmother ate while pregnant with your mother might affect your children's health, and other findings from the growing field of nutrigenomics.
Obesity: An Overblown Epidemic
W. Wayt Gibbs
Scientific American, June 2005, pp.
Still Hungry?
Janet Raloff
Science News, April 2, 2005
Fattening revelations - and new mysteries - about the hunger hormone.
Why Are We So Fat?
Cathy Newman
National Geographic, August 2004, pp. 46-61
Article describes the problem of obesity in the U. S. and elsewehre in the world. Causes (too much food, too little exercise) and effects of obesity are explained.
[Additional resources]
Inflammatory Fat
Janet Raloff
Science News, February 28, 2004
Unraveling the injurious biology of obesity.
Dietary Dilemmas
Damaris Christensen
Science News, February 8, 2003, pp 88-90
There seems to be more confusion than ever in what the best diet is for weight-control and general health -- low fat or low carbohydrate.
Rebuilding the Food Pyramid
Walter C. Willett; Meir J. Stampfer
Scientific American, January 2003, pp.
The Hunger Hormone?
John Travis
Science News, February 16, 2002, pp. 107-108
Researchers have long supposed some sort of chemical signal controls the brain's sense of hunger. A hormone known as ghrelin has emerged as a good candidate for this signal.
Trans Fats
Jessica Gorman
Science News, November 10, 2001, pp. 300-301
Evidence is accumulating that trans fats, which contain a type of unsaturated fatty acid, may be implicated in diseases such as diabetes and coronary disease.
[References]
Brain Food
Janet Raloff
Science Week, November 3, 2001, pp. 282-284
Choline is a nutrient which has long been recognized as being essential, for instance, to avoid liver damage. It is now thought to be helpful for brain development as well.
Fatty Findings
Damaris Christensen
Science Week, April 14, 2001, pp. 238-239
Proteins known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), and especially PPAR-γ, act as molecular switches to control genes that regulate fat intake. They may affect the development of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.
[References]
Caloric Restriction and Aging
Richard Weindruch
Scientific American, January 1996, pp. 46-52
Reduced caloric intake has been shown to increase longevity in rodents and many other species. Whether the result is the same for humans is still an open question.


Recommended references: Books


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Copyright © 2002 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved