Open Questions: Intelligence

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See also: Cognition -- Categorization and concept formation -- Thinking, reasoning, and logic -- Creativity and problem solving -- Artificial intelligence

If sex evolved so that your children are not condemned to be just like you, intelligence evolved so that you are not condemned to be just like yourself.

Alison Jolly



Introduction


Recommended references: Web sites

Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Recommended references: Books

Introduction



Recommended references: Web sites

Site indexes

Galaxy: Intelligence
Categorized site directory. Entries usually include descriptive annotations. More here.


Sites with general resources


Surveys, overviews, tutorials

High-Aptitude Minds: The Neurological Roots of Genius
September 2008 Scientific American Mind article, by Christian Hoppe and Jelena Stojanovic, subtitled "Researchers are finding clues to the basis of brilliance in the brain."
Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages
Article by Howard Gardner, who originially published his theory of "multiple intelligences" in 1983. The article deals with misunderstandings that Gardner believes have arisen about the theory.
Multiple Mathematical Intelligences
A brief article which points out that even mathematical intelligence is not a single thing, but comes in different forms.
Intelligence Considered
November 1998 feature article from a special issue of Scientific American, by Philip Yam, subtitled "What does it mean to have brainpower? A search for a definition of intelligence".
Looking for the brain's g force
July 2000 news article in Science News, about a brain imaging study that specific parts of the brain's frontal lobe are engaged while performing tasks linked to general intelligence.
Energy-efficient brains
July 2000 news article in Science News, about a brain imaging study that showed high scores on problem-solving tasks involving visual and spatial skills were associated with efficient energy use in the brain.


Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Essence of g
Bruce Bower
Science News, February 8, 2003, pp. 92-93
The search continues for the biological bases of general intelligence, but even the proper definition of intelligence remains uncertain.
[References]
Why Are You So Smart?
Karen Wright
Discover, October, 1999, pp. 40-42
Genetic researcher Robert Plomin has begun to identify specific genes that seem to correlate with IQ scores.
The Genetics of Cognitive Abilities and Disabilities
Robert Plomin; John C. DeFries
Scientific American, May 1998, pp. 62-69
Studies of identical and fraternal twins and of adopted children have attempted to determine the relative importance of environmental and hereditary factors in verbal and spacial abilities. It appears that about half of the observed variation is genetically based.
What Are Intelligence? And Why?
Randall Davis
AI Magazine, Spring 1998, pp. 91-110
The title of this article makes the point that "intelligence" is many things, both conceptually and in implementation. Intelligence can be considered from several points of view, such as the logical and the psychological. As a product of evolution, different components of intelligence have come about for a variety of purposes. Behavior that can be called "intelligent" is not limited to humans. AI can be regarded as the study of the design space of possible forms of intelligence. As a science, AI may be more like biology, which tries to understand diverse phenomena, than like mathematics, which tries to extrapolate from a limited set of general principles. One kind of reasoning that needs to be studied more closely is visual or perceptual rather than logical in nature.
[Article in PDF format]
Rising Scores on Intelligence Tests
Ulric Neisser
American Scientist, September-October 1997, pp. 440-447
Average scores on a variety of standard intelligence tests have been rising world wide ever since such tests were invented. What this means for the concept of intelligence is as important as specific causes.
The Role of Intelligence in Modern Society
Earl Hunt
American Scientist, July-August 1995, pp. 356-368
There are still raging debates over whether there is such a thing as general intelligence, what it might be, and the degree to which it is heritable. Answers to these questions have imporant social implications.


Recommended references: Books


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