Open Questions: Thinking, Reasoning, and Logic
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See also: Intelligence 
Cognition 
Categorization and concept formation
Introduction
Questions:
 How did functions like logic & reasoning evolve? What adaptive function
did they serve? What were the selective pressures?
 Are logic & reasoning merely byproducts of other brain capabilities?
 How are concepts and categories, generalization & specialization
implemented? How is the notion of "similarity" implemented?
 How are rules of formal logic implemented (logical operations,
rules of quantification)?
 How is symbolic processing implemented? Are "symbols" represented
and manipulated in the brain, and if so how?
 How did mathematical capabilities (counting, shape recognition,
judgment of magnitude, etc.) originate & how are they implemented?

Tim van Gelder Research Publications
 Many of van Gelder's publications deal with the philosophy of
thinking and reasoning.

The Laboratory for Complex Thinking & Scientific Reasoning
 At McGill University. "The main focus of research conducted in
this laboratory is to uncover the thought processes underlying
complex thinking and reasoning, especially scientific reasoning."
Laboratory director is
Kevin Dunbar.

What Are Numbers, Really? A Cerebral Basis For Number Sense
 Article by Stanislas Dehaene, a cognitive neuropsychologist
who has studied the "number sense". The question is what could
be an evolutionary basis for counting and other mathematical
abilities.

Jef Raskin's Effectiveness of Mathematics
 An essay propounding the view that the human mind has evolved to
operate (partially) in accord with logical principles, which entails
it will develop mathematics in such a way as to be able to describe
natural phenomena.

Animals that count: How numeracy evolved
 June 2009 New Scientist article.
"Monkeys, coots, salamanders and even bees can all understand
numbers. But how and why did the ability arise?"
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Copyright © 2002 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved