Open Questions: Controlled Fusion

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Introduction


Recommended references: Web sites

Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Recommended references: Books

Introduction



Recommended references: Web sites

Site indexes

Open Directory Project: Nuclear Fusion
Categorized and annotated links. A version of this list is at Google, with entries sorted in "page rank" order. May also be found at Netscape.
Galaxy: Fusion
Categorized site directory. Entries usually include descriptive annotations.
The World Wide Web Virtual Library: Plasma Science and Technology
General resources and links for all aspects of plasma physics, not just those related to fusion. Maintained by plasmas.org.


Sites with general resources

ITER
ITER is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, a proposed international project to develop a working fusion reactor as a demonstration of scientific and technological feasibility. The site contains an overview of fusion research, information on the physics of fusion, and frequently-asked questions.
Cadarache: The European Site for ITER
Describes how ITER can be constructed at Cadarache, France.
HiPER Project
"HiPER is a proposed European High Power laser Energy Research facility dedicated to demonstrating the feasibility of laser driven fusion as a future energy source. HiPER is being designed to enable a broad array of new science including extreme material studies, astrophysics in the laboratory, miniaturised particle accelerators and a wide range of fundamental physics research." The site includes general information, external links, and a glossary.
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Home page of the laboratory, containing information on publications, ongoing research. Also a virtual tour of the lab.
Fusion Power
Overview of fusion power research in the UK, including technical papers, a glossary, external links. Site maintained by the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA).
U. S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program
This site, sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, includes general information, documents, and external links. There is also a page about the ITER program, together with external links.
EFDA-JET Web Site
JET is the Joint European Torus, a fusion energy research project begun in 1978 in England. The project is now operated by the European Fusion Development Agreement. The site contains a long list of frequently asked questions, and an entire book: The Science of Jet, by John Wesson, in PDF format.
European Fusion Development Agreement
Authority responsible for coordination of fusion research in Europe. Site contains general information, news, and external links.
General Atomics Fusion Group Educational Home Page
An educational site that includes a definition of terms, slide show, tutorials, and external links.
The FIRE Place
Provides a large collection of news articles and external links on fusion energy research. The site is maintained by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Plasma Science and Technology
The site represents "all aspects of plasma science and technology". It "has been prepared as a service for the general public as well as for the educational and research communities." It provides basic information on plasma science and applications, as well as additional resources.


Surveys, overviews, tutorials

Fusion power
Article from Wikipedia. See also Aneutronic fusion.
How Nuclear Fusion Reactors Work
Informative article at Howstuffworks.com.
Interactive Plasma Physics Education Experience
"This site contains Interactive Plasma Physics Topics, ranging from electricity, magnetism, energy, and fusion." It includes information on fusion science, a virtual Tokamak, Ask a Plasma Physicist, and a glossary of fusion terms. The site is part of Science Education at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Fusion Energy Educational Web Site
Extensive and noteworthy collection of educational information on fusion energy. Includes a list of frequently asked questions, a fusion and plasma glossary, external links, and an online fusion course. The site is maintained by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Catalyst: Fusion
April 2006 transcript of an Australian ABC TV program called Catalyst, which covered the topic of nuclear fusion.
Fusion Symposium looks to ITER and beyond
September 2008 article from Physics World. "Fusion researchers from around the world will gather in Germany next week to chart the way forward to commercial fusion reactors. Hamish Johnston surveys what will be on offer in Rostock."
Tritium-deuterium plasma puts the heat on ITER's first wall
September 2008 article from Physics World. "The UK firm MG Sanders is developing tungsten tile modules that will soon be installed in the Joint European Torus, where the components will be evaluated for use in the ITER fusion reactor. Ian Warrington explains the challenges of developing a complex technology that can withstand the intense heat of nuclear fusion."
Fusion: the way ahead
May 2006 article from Physics World, by Richard Pitts, Richard Buttery and Simon Pinches. "The recent decision to build the world's largest fusion experiment - ITER - in France has thrown down the gauntlet to fusion researchers worldwide." The authors "describe how the Joint European Torus in the UK is playing a key role in ensuring ITER will demonstrate the reality of fusion power."
Controlled fusion: the next step
January 2004 article from Physics World, by Gia Tuong Hoang and Jean Jacquinot. "The next generation of fusion experiments will require major advances in plasma heating and improvements in the methods used to keep components cool."
Fusion energy: the agony, the ecstasy and alternatives
November 1997 opinion article by John Perkins from Physics World. Argues for a research program that considers "alternative" as well as "conventional" approaches.
The Science of JET
Complete book in PDF format, by John Wesson. JET is the Joint European Tokamak, a now-completed nuclear fusion research project.
Why hasn't fusion research so far produced better results?
Question and answers from Scientific American's Ask the Experts section.


Recommended references: Magazine/journal articles

Still Dreaming of Star Power
Diane Martindale
Discover, March 2002, pp. 18-19
Experimental fusion reactors are now capable of producing (very briefly) tens of megawars of power, yet still consume more total power than they produce. While research is continuing, it could be another 50 years before a commercial fusion reactor is operational.
Fusion and the Z-Pinch
Gerold Yonas
Scientific American, August 1998, pp. 40-47
The Sandia National Laboratories' "Z machine" tests the use of intense bursts of X-rays to trigger controlled fusion.
Build the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor?
Andrew M. Sessler, Thomas H. Stix, Marshall N. Rosenbluth
Physics Today, June 1996, pp. 21-25
The pros and cons of developing a major new experimental device to advance the development of magnetically controlled fusion are discussed. The major concern is that the proposed device is too large a step given the current state of the technology.


Recommended references: Books


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