Open Questions: DNA and Molecular Computing
Combinatorics, graph theory, and computation --
Quantum information and computing
Galaxy: DNA-Based Computing
- Categorized site directory. Entries usually include
- Links to articles in the popular media, some research papers,
and home pages of people involved with DNA computers, by
Sites with general resources
Erik's Molecular Computation Page
Eric Winfree. Contains information, publications, references,
and external links.
Massively Parallel Computation by DNA
- Brief page by Mitsunori Ogihara on his researach, with list of
Caltech Initiative in Computational Molecular Biology
- About the research program at Caltech on "the interface
between the Biological and the Physical / Chemical / Computational
- Home page of a major contributor to the subject of DNA
computing. Adelman is the principle investigator at the
Laboratory for Molecular Science.
The site contains references to relevant lectures and papers.
Laboratory for Molecular Science
- Work at the laboratory includes
DNA computing and
There is a useful short list of
frequently asked questions, containing some external links.
A Bibliography of Molecular Computation and Splicing Systems
- Very extensive list, with links to materials that are online.
Surveys, overviews, tutorials
- Article from
How DNA Computers Will Work
- Breezy overview for a general audience at the
How Stuff Works site.
Turning DNA into Logic Gates
- September 2000 Scientific American news article about
one way to make a DNA computer.
DNA-Based Computers Could Race Past Supercomputers, Researchers
- November 28, 1997 article on DNA computation.
DNA Computing and Informatics at Surfaces
- A paper by Robert M. Corn, Lloyd M. Smith, and Anne E. Condon
on "the development and characterization of complex mixtures of
DNA molecules attached to surfaces."
The ABC of DNA Computing
- Article by Tony Phillips with a mathematical flavor. Provides a
very good overview of DNA computing by consideration of the directed
hamiltonian path problem, which is known to be "NP-complete".
Smart DNA: Programming the Molecule of Life for Work and Play
Joanne Macdonald; Darko Stefanovic; Milan N. Stojanovic
Scientific American, November 2008
- Bringing DNA Computers to Life
Ehud Shapiro; Yaakov Benenson
Scientific American, April 2006
- Moletronics Will Change Everything
Wired, July 2000, pp. 240-251.
- Moletronics -- the implementation of computational algorithms
by chemical processes -- may be a successor to semiconductor
technology. A variety of approaches are being explored, but
breakthroughs will be required before silicon technology reaches
its limits around 2015.
Computing with Molecules
Mark A. Reed; James M. Tour
Scientific American, June 2000, pp. 86-93
- Molecules that act as switches, wires, and memory elements
have been produced in the laboratory. But a great deal more
research will be required to use these elements for practical
- Molecular Computing
Technology Review, May-June 2000, pp. 52-58
- Individual organic molecules only a few nanometers in size may
be able to function as switches in elecronic logic and memory
- Biological Computing
Simson L. Garfinkel
Technology Review, May-June 2000, pp. 70-77
- The ability of genes to be switched "on" and "off" may be more
than just a metaphor. The switching of genes by other genes through
the proteins they code for is real and could potentially be
harnessed to allow "programming" of living cells.
- DNA Computing
Technology Review, May-June 2000, pp. 80-84
- Algorithms as used in present computers and not the only model
for "computation". The ability of single strands of DNA to pair
off very precisely with specific other strands may be usable
to "program" the construction of nanoscale objects and materials.
- Physics and the Information Revolution
Joel Birnbaum; R. Stanley Williams
Physics Today, January 2000, pp. 38-42
- Physical and economic limits on the speed and density of
silicon-based computing technology are gradually being approached.
Various possible follow-on technologies exist, but major
breakthroughs will be required.
- Computing After Silicon
Technology Review, September/October 1999, pp. 92-96
- Interview with Stan Williams of Hewlett-Packard's research lab
on the question of what can replace silicon technology,
which may reach its limits in only 10 years.
- A Continuous Model of Computation
Joseph F. Traub
Physics Today, May 1999, pp. 39-43
- The Turing-machine model of computation has been dominant for
the last 50 years. Other models may be better suited to non-electronic
technologies and many of the types of problems that concern
- Computing with DNA
Leonard M. Adelman
Scientific American, August 1998, pp. 54-61
- Short pieces of DNA in a test tube can solve computational
problems by combining, growing, and recombining. Successful
experiments with this technique are redefining how we think
- DNA Computing: Arrival of Biological Mathematics
Mathematical Intelligencer, Spring 1997, pp. 9-22
- The author explains the basics of DNA computing and give examples.
She then looks at more theoretical aspects and raises the question
of how different this model of computing is from the traditional
- Protein-Based Computers
Roger R. Birge
Scientific American, March 1995, pp. 90-95
- Biological molecules may enable fabrication of faster and more
compact data storage devices. Possible computer applications
include three-dimensional memories, neural networks, and more
Copyright © 2002 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved