Open Questions: Quantum Information and Computing
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See also: Quantum theory 
Quantum effects technology 
Physics of information and computation 
Combinatorics, graph theory, and computation
Introduction
Site indexes

Quantum Computation WWW Sites
 High quality, but not long, list of sites, compiled by the
StanfordBerkeleyMITIBM NMR Quantum Computation Project.

Yahoo Quantum Computing Links
 Annotated list of links.

Galaxy: Quantum Computing
 Categorized site directory. Entries usually include
descriptive annotations.
May be more
here and
here.

Galaxy: Quantum Teleportation
 Categorized site directory. Entries usually include
descriptive annotations.
More
here.
Sites with general resources

Centre for Quantum Computation
 At Oxford University. "Provides useful information and links
to all material in the field of quantum computing and
information processing."
Site contains a list of
frequently asked questions, and an excellent collection of
introductions and tutorials.

Quantum Experiments and the Foundations of Physics
 Research group of Prof. A. Zeilinger at the University of
Vienna. Deals with photonic entanglement and related phenomena.
There are descriptions of research into
quantum information theory.
Zellinger's home page has some good articles on foundations
of quantum mechanics, quantum teleportation, and quantum
information.

Center for Spintronics and Quantum Information
 "The Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation is part
of the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) based at the
University of California  Santa Barbara. This multidisciplinary
research center provides a focus for rapidly expanding research,
education and training in spinbased electronics and quantum
computation, with an emphasis on the potential realization
in coherent electronic, magnetic and photonic nanostructures."
Site features include information about the group's research,
news, and a few external links.

Quantum Information Group
 Research Group at the University of Leeds (UK).
The site includes descriptions of research and many
external links to other research groups.

The Physics of Quantum Information
 Home page for a network of research groups studying quantum
information.

Quantum Optics and Foundation of Physics
 Contains references to various research groups working
on quantum information and computing.

Quantum Information Research at NIST: Goals and Vision
 Home page of research group at the U. S.
National Institute of Standards
and Technology. Contains overviews like
What Good is Quantum Information? and
What Is Quantum Information? Also more details about
Quantum Computing and
Quantum Communications.

Toshiba Quantum Information Group
 Main focus of research is quantum cryptography. Site
contents include selected publications and news articles.

Quantum Information and Information Physics at IBM Research
Yorktown
 Has access to work at IBM on quantum computing, especially
quantum teleportation, as well as some exteral links.

Quantum Computation/Cryptography at Los Alamos
 Overview of work done at Los Alamos. Examples: quantum error
correction, quantum teleportation.

Centre for Quantum Computer Technology
 Home page of "an Australian multiuniversity collaboration
undertaking research on the fundamental physics and technology of
building, at the atomic level, a solid state quantum computer in
silicon together with other high potential implementations."
The site contains a brief
introduction to quantum computing
and some
external links.

Institute for Quantum Computing
 Home page of research group at the University of Waterloo
(Canada). "The mission of the Institute is to advance
fundamental experimental and theoretical knowledge in
relevant areas of Engineering, Mathematics and Science
to enhance the developments in the field of Quantum Computation
and Information Processing."

HP Labs: Quantum Information Processing Group
 Home page of HP Laboratories in Bristol, UK. Has some useful
external links.

Trapped Ion Quantum Computing
 Research group at the University of Michigan.
"Our group focuses on the electromagnetic confinement of
individual atoms for fundamental studies of quantum mechanics
and applications in quantum information science." The site
includes a
FAQ,
external links on quantum computing, and general information
about the group's research.

Ion Quantum Technology Group
 Home page of a research group at the University of Sussex
(UK). "Our aim is to develop new quantum technologies, in
particular, the ion trap quantum computer." In addition to the
usual information about the group's research and publications,
the site has some
tutorials.

COSMQC Homepage
 COSMQC is the Center for Oxide Semiconductor Materials for
Quantum Computation. Its mission "is to develop oxide semiconductor
materials capable of scalable quantum information processing using
spins in semiconductors."

Quantum Computing Technologies
 Contains information related to the NASA/JPL programs in
quantum computation and quantum metrology.

GAP Optique
 Home page of the Group of Applied Physics at the University
of Geneva, which concentrates on quantum optics, quantum
teleportation, and related topics.

Caltech Quantum Optics
 Home page of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. Describes
several research programs, including
quantum teleportation

Cavity QED Research
 Description of research of the Quantum Optics Group at
Caltech related to optical cavity quantum electrodynamics.

Quantum Optics at Georgia Tech
 Site contains information on research projects and publications,
news articles, and external links.

Quantum Optics at Harvard University
 Site contains information on research projects and publications,
news articles, and external links.

Quantum Logic and Coherent Control
 Description of research into quantum phenomena involving
trapped ions.

Mabuchi Lab Website
 Home page of a Caltech research group whose interests include
quantum information science and technology.

Kwiat Quantum Information Group
 Research group at the University of Illinois. Site includes
overviews of
research areas and a
list of publications.

Institute for Quantum Information
 "The Institute sponsors programs which encourage the growth and
development of the emerging field of
quantum information science."

Quantum Technology Lab
 Research laboratory at the University of Queensland (Australia).
"Our Objective: To explore quantum mechanics with technologies
that exploit the unique properties of quantum information."

The Physics of Quantum Information European Research Network
 "The Physics of Quantum Information is a proposed European
network within the TMR program of the European Commission. It will
bring together for the first time all relevant European activities
in the field of the physics of quantum information."

Centre for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information
 Home page of a research group at the University of
Innsbruck, containing information about research projects. The
university also has a
Quantum Optics and Spectroscopy Group.

Computational Nonlinear & Quantum Optics Group
 University of Strathclyde (Scotland) research group home page.
Contains information on projects,
publications, computer animations, and a few external links.

The StanfordBerkeleyMITIBM NMR Quantum Computation Project
 Project home page, containing overview of the research, news,
lists of participants, and
external links.

The Delft Spin Qubit Project
 Home page of a research group at Delft University that is
investigating use of electron spin in quantum dots as a means
for implementing quantum computers.

Martinis Group
 Home page of a research group at U. C. Santa Barbara, led by
John Martinis. The site has a list of the group's publications.
Surveys, overviews, tutorials

Quantum computer
 Article from
Wikipedia.
See also
Quantum information processing,
Quantum information,
Qubit,
Quantum cryptography.

An Introduction to Quantum Computing
 Very nice overview article, by Jacob West.

A short introduction to quantum computation
 Good introduction by A. Barenco, A. Ekert, A. Sanpera, and
C. Machiavello.

Quantum Cryptography Tutorial
 Short but informative singlepage overview of quantum
cryptograpy, by
James Ford.

Physicist takes a quantum leap
 July 2009 press release about quantum computing research
at the University of Queensland (Australia).

Quantum poker: Are the chips down or not?
 May 2009 New Scientist article.
"When quantum computers replace today's PCs, online poker
players will have to master outlandish new strategies 
such as betting and folding simultaneously."

Quantum computers get commercial  and hackable
 April 2009 New Scientist article.
"Machines that compute using quantum principles are arriving
on the market at last, but claims of unbreakable security
look unfounded."

Quantum Computing
 Transcript of a radio program of the
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. It is an interview
with Andrew White and Michelle Simmons, experts in quantum
computing.

Quantum Entanglement
 November 2004 feature article from the
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The focus of the article
is on applications such as quantum computing and cryptography.

Quantum computing... with a twist
 September 2010 article from
Physics World,
by Steve Simon,
about topological quantum computing.

The race to build a quantum computer
 February 2009 article from
Physics World.
"Quantum computation was a highly speculative enterprise facing
serious technological obstacles until a shy young physicist
came along. Dave Bacon tells the story of Alexei Kitaev's
big idea."

A quantum renaissance
 July 2008 article from
Physics World, by
Markus Aspelmeyer and Anton Zeilinger.
"Physicists can now routinely exploit the counterintuitive
properties of quantum mechanics to transmit, encrypt and even
process information. But the technological advances of
quantum information science are now enabling researchers
to readdress fundamental puzzles raised by quantum theory."

Quantum computing  a commercial reality?
 April 2007 article from
Physics World, by
Edwin Cartlidge. "A small Canadian company says it has built the
world's first commercial quantum computer. But not everyone is
convinced that the firm's claims stack up."

Key to the quantum industry
 March 2007 article from
Physics World by
Andrew Shields and Zhiliang Yuan. "Technology that exploits
the strange rules of quantum mechanics to guarantee the
security of encrypted messages is the first product of a
new quantuminformation industry to reach the market."

Ions break the record for entanglement
 Summary of January 2006 article from
Physics World, by
Amber Jenkins.
"Two groups of researchers have managed to entangle up to
eight ions, raising the bar for future forays into quantum
computation."

Superconducting quantum bits
 December 2004 article from
Physics World, by
Hans Mooij. "Superconducting devices can be used to explore
the boundaries between the quantum and classical worlds,
and could also have applications in quantum information."

Quantum computing with solids
 August 2002 article from
Physics World, by
Robert W. Keyes. "Science and technology could be revolutionized by
quantum computers, but building them from solidstate devices will
not be easy."

Patents, patience and quantum ideas
 May 1999 article from
Physics World, by
Paul Guinnessy. "Will the patents taken out on quantum computers
expire before such computers are ever built?" Contains a useful
summary of important inventions involving quantum information
and computing.

Quantum solitons
 February 1999 article from
Physics World, by
Izo Abram. "Two of the most remarkable properties of light 
squeezing and solitons  are being combined in a new generation
of experiments that could revolutionize optics and communications."

Quantum engineering moves on
 January 1999 article from
Physics World, by
Ignacio Cirac. "One of the most intriguing features of quantum
mechanics is the existence of entangled states. ... The generation
and manipulation of entangled states is fundamental to studies of
the most basic aspects of quantum mechanics, and provides the basis
of applications such as quantum computing, quantum communications
and highprecision spectroscopy."

Quantum information
 March 1998 article from
Physics World, by
Peter Rodgers. "There is more to information than a string of ones
and zeroes  the ability of "quantum bits" to be in two states at
the same time could revolutionize information technology."

Fundamentals of quantum information
 March 1998 article from
Physics World, by
Anton Zeilinger. "The fact that information is physical
means that the laws of quantum mechanics can be used to process
and transmit it in ways that are not possible with existing systems."

Singlephoton field trials secure peak performance
 November 2002 article from
Opto & Laser Europe.
Describes progress in quantum cryptography for secure communications.

QCL  A Programming Language for Quantum Computers
 A research paper by
Bernhard Ömer.

Beam Me Up
 Transcript of an Australian TV program in which quantum
teleportation researchers were interviewed.

Playing stop and go with light
 January 2001 news article from
Physics Web.
"Two teams of physicists in the US have managed to capture
pulses of light in a gas, and then release the pulses a fraction
of a second later. This feat  which involves reducing the speed
of light in the gas to zero  could be used to store information
and may also have applications in quantum information processing."

Quantum theory beats diffraction limit
 September 2000 news article from
Physics Web
about using entangled photons to enhance optical lithography
of semiconductor chips.

Quantum leap for entanglement
 March 2000 news article from
Physics Web
about entangling four particles for the first time.

New phase for quantum computers
 February 2000 news article from
Physics World, about
the nuclear magnetic resonance approach to quantum computing
and geometric phase.

Measuring decoherence in real time
 January 2000 news article from
Physics Web
about measuring the transition of a system from quantum to
classical behavior.

Macroscopic spin moves
 January 1999 news article from
Physics World, about
a new technique that can transport quantum particles over a
distance of 0.1 mm.

Quantum teleportation goes beyond two states
 October 1998 article from
Physics Web
about quantum teleportation of a beam of light.

Quantum Quest: An End to Errors
 January 2001 Wired News article on quantum information technology.

Quantum Physics Meets the Qubit
 January 2001 Wired News article on quantum information technology.

Quantum Leap in Computing
 March 23, 2000 article from Wired.

Quantum Teleportation
 Brief report of a recent result showing that the
EinsteinPodolskyRosen effect can in principle be used for a
sort of "teleportation".

Quantum Teleportation
 More detailed explanation of recent experiments demonstrating
"quantum teleportation".

Quantum Entanglement Benefits Exist after Links Are Broken
 Brief January 2009 Scientific American article, subtitled
"A way for quantum benefits to survive after entanglement ends."

What Visions in the Dark of Light
 September 2007 Scientific American Insights article,
subtitled "Lene Vestergaard Hau made headlines by slowing light
to below highway speed. Now the ringmaster of light can stop it,
extinguish it and revive it  and thereby give quantum information
a new look."

The Gedanken Experimenter
 August 2007 Scientific American Insights article,
subtitled "In putting teleportation, entanglement and other
quantum oddities to the test, physicist Anton Zeilinger hopes
to find out just how unreal quantum reality can get."

Ion Power
 March 2006 Scientific American In Focus article,
subtitled "Atomic ions prove their quantum versatility."

Quantum Bug
 October 2005 Scientific Amerian In Focus article,
subtitled "Qubits might spontaneously decay in seconds."

Qubit Twist
 April 2005 short article in Scientific American,
subtitled "Bending nanotubes as mechanical quantum bits."

Coherent Computing
 August 2002 Scientific American News Scan article,
subtitled "Making qubit superpositions in superconductors last
longer."

Trillions Entwined
 December 2001 Scientific American News Scan article,
subtitled "Clouds of Atoms Are Linked By A Weird Quantum Yoke."

Foolproof Quantum Cryptography
 December 2000 Scientific American news article about
using polarized light as qubits.

Qubit Chip
 August 1999 news article from Scientific American,
subtitled "A superconducting chip suggests a practical path to
mediumscale quantum computing."

Beam Me Up
 December 1997 Scientific American In Focus article,
subtitled "An experiment confirms that teleportation is
possibleat least for photons."

Subatomic Logic
 September 1996 Scientific American In Focus article,
subtitled "Researchers nudge closer to the goal of quantum computing."

Computation Takes a Quantum Leap
 August 2000 news article from Science News, about use
of a molecule in a computational process.

Atom microchips get off the ground
 June 2000 Science News news article about microcircuits
based on atom flows.

Quantum quirks quicken thorny searches
 June 2000 news article from Science News, about a
quantum computer algorithm for database searching.

Quantum games
 November 1999 Science News article about game theory
and quantum algorithms.

Quantum leap
 April 1998 New Scientist news article.
"The era of quantum computing has begun in earnest, scientists
say. For the first time, they have made a quantum computer that
can carry out a task in a way that is impossible with
supercomputers."

Achieving quantum teleportation in the laboratory
 January 1998 news article in Science News about
laboratory teleportation of photons.

QuantumQuick Queries
 August 1996 news article in Science News, about
using quantum computation to speed up database searches.
These are usually very technical papers at
Arxiv.org
which provide explicit mathematical details of the topic area.

Quantum Computing
 Author: Andrew Steane. Date: September 24, 1997.

Quantum Computation
 Author: Dorit Aharonov. Date: December 15, 1998.

Theory of quantum computation
 Authors: E. H. Knill, M. A. Nielsen. Date: October 17, 2000.
Notes: Short, simple introductory paper.

Introduction to quantum information theory
 Author: M. A. Nielsen. Date: November 15, 2000.
Notes: Short, simple introductory paper.

Welcome to the quantum internet
Davide Castelvecchi
Science News, August 16, 2008


Decoding the quantum mystery
Tom Siegfried
Science News, August 2, 2008


Quantum Computing with Ions
Christopher R. Monroe; David J. Wineland
Scientific American, August 2008


Quantum cocoon
Davide Castelvecchi
Science News, April 5, 2008

 The Limits of Quantum Computers
Scott Aaronson
Scientific American, March 2008

 The Diamond Age of Spintronics
David D. Awschalom; Ryan Epstein; Ronald Hanson
Scientific American, October 2007

 Computing with Quantum Knots
Graham P. Collins
Scientific American, March 2006


BestKept Secrets
Gary Stix
Scientific American, January 2005


Knotty Calculations
Erica Klarreich
Science News, February 22, 2003, pp. 124126
 Nature can be thought of as a computer which can solve
enormously complicated equations, such as those governing the
motions of all planets and asteroids in the solar system. Certain
kinds of systems known as "fractional quantum Hall fluids" may be
able to solve equations in the mathematical theory of braids,
which could make possible the computation of the knot invariants
known as "Jones polynomials", and consequently be able to solve
manhy other hard problems as well.

Rules for a Complex Quantum World
Michael A. Nielsen
Scientific American, November 2002
 There is a sidebar:
Disentangling Entanglement
 Liquid Logic
Mark K. Anderson
Wired, September 2001, pp. 152157
 Many approaches to quantum computing have been envisioned.
One plausible scheme uses electrons floating on superfluid
helium.

From Quantum Cheating to Quantum Security
Daniel Gottesman; HoiKwong Lo
Physics Today, November 2000, pp. 2227
 Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) provides an example of how
quantum mechanics may be used to implement a significant algorithm.
There are important implications for practical cryptography.
 Quantum Computing
M. Mitchell Waldrop
Technology Review, MayJune 2000, pp. 6066
 Two recent developments, one theoretical and one practical,
have raised the prospects for quantum computing. The theoretical
advance is a factoring algorithm for quantum computers. The practical
advance involves control of nuclear spins by means of nuclear
magnetic resonance technology.
 Quantum Teleportation
Anton Zielinger
Scientific American, April 2000, pp. 5059
 "Teleportation" or "action at a distance" has been demonstrated
for light quanta. Although teleportation of matter on a large scale
remains highly unlikely, consideration of the underlying mechanism
has helped clarify quantum theory.
 Physicists Triumph at Guess My Number
Andrew M. Steane; Wim van Dam
Physics Today, February 2000, pp. 3539
 A game show metaphor is used to illustrate how concepts of
quantum entanglement and information theory may contribute to
quantum computation.
 Quantum Computing
Lov K. Grover
The Sciences, July/August 1999, pp. 2430
 The principles of quantum mechanics make it possible to
envision "computations" performed in parallel much faster and
in radically different ways than used by exiting computers. But
how to actually implement quantum computing remains largely unknown.
 Battling Decoherence: The FaultTolerant Quantum Computer
John Preskill
Physics Today, June 1999, pp. 2430
 The idea of quantum computers is to manipulate quantum states
rather than classical bits. Success in this depends on preserving
"coherent" quantum states. Recent discoveries indicate the way
to do that.
 The Great Quantum Number Cruncher
David H. Freedman
Discover, January 1999, pp. 9096
 The concept of quantum computing is still speculative. If it
is possible at all, the underlying principles will be significantly
different from those of traditional computers.

Quantum Computing with Molecules
Neil Gershenfeld, Isaac L. Chuang
Scientific American, June 1998, pp. 6671
 The quantum effects of nuclear magnetic resonance may
enable constructions of computers based on molecules of
ordinary liquids.
 Quantum Computing: Dream or Nightmare?
Serge Haroche, JeanMichel Raimond
Physics Today, August 1996, pp. 5152
 Although recent theories of quantum computing have helped
clarify the boundary between classical and quantum worlds,
they raise questions about the feasibility of practical
quantum computing.
 Quantum Information and Computation
Charles H. Bennett
Physics Today, October 1995, pp. 2430
 "Quantum teleportation" using EinsteinPodolskyRosen correlations
between two "entangled" particles entail information transfer which
can be exploited for computation. Algorithms have been
discovered which permit solution of certain problems much more
rapidly than classical algorithms.
 QuantumMechanical Computers
Seth Lloyd
Scientific American, October 1995, pp. 140145
 Various techniques can be imagined to make logic gates that
operate on quantum mechanical principles. Computers based on
such elements would have capabilities impossible in current
computers.
 Charles Seife – Decoding the Universe: How the New
Science of Information Is Explaining Everything in the Cosmos,
from Our Brains to Black Holes
Viking, 2006
 Seife's book is written for a general audience, and risks
the usual shortcomings of its kind – too much hype and
geewhiz, too little technical detail. Contrary to the book's
subtitle, the "science of information" doesn't "explain
everything", but it is still very useful and interesting.
Much of the application of information theory to physics is
speculative, but possibly very important – especially
with regard to black holes and quantum information, as
discussed in the book's later chapters.
 George Johnson  A Shortcut Through Time: The Path to the
Quantum Computer
Alfred A. Knopf, 2003
 Johnson, a veteran science journalist, offers an excellent
introduction to quantim information and computation for general
readers. Without delving into the technical or mathematical
details of the subject, the author nevertheless manages to give,
in a short book,
an idea of how quantum computers might work, some of the
theoretical accomplishments already achieved (e. g. Shor's
algorithm), and examples of problems that quantum computers
might work on.
[Book review]
[Book review]
 Colin P. Williams, Scott H. Clearwater  Ultimate Zero and One:
Computing at the Quantum Frontier
Copernicus Books, 2000
 The authors offer a good introcudtion to quantum computing
and information for nontechnical readers. But the book has plenty
of detail and describes a lot of relevant physics and technique.
Topics include "teleportation", detecting eavesdropping in
quantum communication, algorithms, and cryptographic techniques.
Different possible implementations of quantum computers are
considered.
 Julian Brown  Minds, Machines, and the Multiverse: The Quest
for the Quantum Computer
Simon & Schuster, 1999
 In addition to prividing good explanations of the basic
ideas of quantum information and computing,
Brown offers a wideranging presentation of fashionable and
speculative topics in quantum theory, such as the "many worlds"
interpretation and the question of whether quantum mechanics
has anything to do with consciousness.
 HoiKwong Lo, Sandu Popescu, Tim Spiller (eds.) 
Introduction to Quantum Computation and Information
World Scientific, 1998
 The book consists of 11 chapters by separate authors and
provides an introduction to the theory of quantum
information, and its applications: computation, teleportation,
and cryptography. Some exposure to the ideas and mathematics
of quantum mechanics is required. Basic ideas of quantum
information and entanglement are presented, as well as more
advanced topics like quantum error correction and faulttolerant
quantum computing.
 Gennady P. Berman; Gary D. Doolen; Ronnie Mainieri; Vladimir I.
Tsifrinovich  Introduction to Quantum Computers
World Scientific, 1998
 The authors offer a nononsense introduction to quantum
computing, suitable for readers having some exposure to quantum
mechanics. Topics include
explanations of quantum computer algorithms for
discrete Fourier transforms and factorization of integers, and details
on the implementation of logic gates.
 Gerard J. Milburn  The Feynman Processor: Quantum Entanglement
and the Computing Revolution
Perseus Books, 1998
 The author, a theoretical physicist, is actively engaged in
research and possible development of quantum computers. His book
first explains the basic ideas of quantum theory, "quantum
entanglement", and "quantum teleportation". He then sketches out
how computing devices using these principles might be constructed.
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