Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 5, Number 12
March 20, 2006

Physical/sciences and technology

Extrasolar planets
Black holes and information
Nanotechnology
Carbon nanotubes
Nanoscale magneto-electronics
Nanoelectronics
Quantum superfluids
Global warming
Sterile neutrinos
Brown dwarfs
DNA nanotechnology
Hydrogen storage technology
Atmospheric CO2
Bose-Einstein condensates
Ocean warming and hurricanes
Martian water
Artificial muscles for robots
High-temperature superconductors
3-year WMAP data
"Rivers" of stars
Large-scale structure of the Milky Way
Carbon-based nanoelectronics
Optoelectronics
Digital storage using nanofilm
Immersion lithography
Dark matter detection
Galaxy evolution
Formation of ocean basins

Life sciences

Cancer
Optic nerve regrowth
Computer simulation of virus
Diabetes
Ribozyme drug for obesity and insulin resistance
Synthesis of antibiotics
Vaccines
Improved diagnostic for disease marker proteins
Plant sterol control of cholesterol
Genetic networks for maintaining DNA integrity
Halophilic bacteria
Marijuana impairment of memory
Hyperactive memory
Alzheimer's disease
Avian flu
Stem cells
AIDS
Reversal of cardiovascular disease with statins
Drug delivery
DNA topoisomerases
Imaging gene expression
Mechanism involved in artery thickening
Discrete and analogue quantity processing
Learning in the visual cortex
Coupled ion channels on neurons
New genomics projects
Interspecies virus transfer
MicroRNA
Cholesterol
Super-stimulation of the immune system
Asthma and natural-killer T cells
Dosage compensation complex
Brain-imaging studies
Specialized brains cells and olfaction


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Newfound Ice World Alters Perceptions of Planetary Systems
  2. March 14, 2006 - 'Naked super-Earth' revealed by microlensing
  3. March 14, 2006 - Planet hunters find 'super-Earth'
  4. March 14, 2006 - Icy 'super-Earth' around distant star
  5. March 14, 2006 - New Icy 'Super-Earth' Planet Found
  6. March 15, 2006 - Super-Earths May Be Three Times More Common Than Jupiters - also here
  7. March 15, 2006 - Einstein Effect Reveals Icy Exoplanet
  8. March 15, 2006 - Astronomers help find icy 'Super Earth' - Life in space discovery a step closer
  9. March 19, 2006 - 'Hot Jupiter' Systems may Harbor Earth-like Planets
  10. March 31, 2006 - Hot Jupiters do not rule out alien Earths
Background


Black holes and information

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Black holes: The ultimate quantum computers?
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Researchers Create The First Reliable Method For Making Gaps For Nanotech Apps - also here, here
  2. March 14, 2006 - Rice University researchers create 'nanorice' - also here
  3. March 19, 2006 - Virus used to make nanoparticles
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Improved Superconductivity in Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
  2. March 17, 2006 - Researchers Grow Bone Cells On Carbon Nanotubes - also here, here, here
Background


Nanoscale magneto-electronics

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Researchers shrink magnetic storage media down to the nanoscale - also here, here, here
Background


Nanoelectronics

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - S.Korea develop the smallest transistors
Background


Quantum superfluids

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Ultracold Atoms Produce Long-sought Quantum Mix; Unbalanced Superfluid Could Be Akin To Exotic Matter Found In Quark Star - also here, here, here
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Arctic global warming may be irreversible
  2. March 15, 2006 - NASA Finds Stronger Storms Change Heat And Rainfall Worldwide - also here
  3. March 15, 2006 - Arctic sea ice faces another year of decline
  4. March 17, 2006 - Radar altimetry confirms global warming is affecting polar glaciers - also here, here, here
  5. March 19, 2006 - Study Links 'Smog' To Arctic Warming - also here, here, here
Background


Sterile neutrinos

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Did 'Dark Matter' Create the First Stars? - also here, here
  2. March 23, 2006 - 'Sterile' neutrinos may solve cosmic conundrums
Background


Brown dwarfs

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Brown dwarfs weighed directly for first time
  2. March 15, 2006 - Brown Dwarfs Weigh In
  3. March 16, 2006 - Eclipsing brown dwarfs provide new key to the star formation process
  4. March 19, 2006 - Astronomers, At Last, Get A Chance To Size Up A Brown Dwarf - also here, here
  5. March 29, 2006 - Astronomers Weigh Adopted Twin Brown Dwarfs
Background


DNA nanotechnology

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - 'DNA origami' creates map of the Americas
  2. March 15, 2006 - A little happiness: 'DNA origami' makes world's smallest Smiley
  3. March 15, 2006 - Nanotech discovers the Americas
  4. March 15, 2006 - DNA origami yields micro map
  5. March 16, 2006 - Nano-smiley made from DNA
  6. March 21, 2006 - 'DNA Origami': Scientist Creates New Method For Folding Strands Of Dna To Make Microscopic Structures - also here
Background


Hydrogen storage technology

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Scientists Working Toward Practical Hydrogen-Storage Materials
Background


Atmospheric CO2

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Atmospheric CO2 accumulating faster than ever
  2. March 15, 2006 - Highest greenhouse gas levels, says UN
Background


Bose-Einstein condensates

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Bosons form quantum threesome
Background


Ocean warming and hurricanes

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - New analysis says global warming boosts hurricanes
  2. March 16, 2006 - Hurricane intensity linked to warmer oceans
  3. March 16, 2006 - Studies Link Strong Storms With Rising Sea Surface Temperatures - also here, here, here
  4. March 16, 2006 - Warming seas cause stronger hurricanes
  5. March 17, 2006 - Statistical Analysis Bolsters Theory Linking Warmer Oceans to Stronger Hurricanes
  6. March 17, 2006 - Storm Intensity Tied to Warming of Sea Surfaces
Background


Martian water

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Big new reservoir of water ice suspected under Mars
  2. March 16, 2006 - Water May Not Have Formed Mars' Recent Gullies
Background


Artificial muscles for robots

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Methanol-powered artificial muscles start to flex
  2. March 17, 2006 - Nano Technologists Demonstrate Artificial Muscles Powered By Highly Energetic Fuels - also here, here, here
  3. March 18, 2006 - Scientists make 'bionic' muscles
  4. March 22, 2006 - Fake muscles work like real thing
Background


High-temperature superconductors

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - New Wrinkle in the Mystery of High-Tc Superconductors - also here, here
Background


3-year WMAP data

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - New Satellite Data On Universe's First Trillionth Second
  2. March 16, 2006 - Astronomers Detect First Split-Second of the Universe
  3. March 16, 2006 - Big Bang Afterglow Points to Inflation
  4. March 17, 2006 - Best ever map of the early universe revealed
  5. March 17, 2006 - New direction for cosmic radiation
  6. March 17, 2006 - A New Triumph for Inflation
  7. March 17, 2006 - New Satellite Data On Universe's First Trillionth Second - also here, here
  8. March 17, 2006 - Evidence for Universe Expansion Found
  9. March 17, 2006 - Space probe backs up dark view of the Universe
  10. March 18, 2006 - Satellite Confirms Birth Theory of Universe
Background


"Rivers" of stars

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Astronomers Discover a River of Stars Streaming Across the Northern Sky - also here, here
  2. March 22, 2006 - 'Rivers' of stars revealed flowing across the sky
Background


Large-scale structure of the Milky Way

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Deriving the shape of the Galactic stellar disc - also here, here
Background


Carbon-based nanoelectronics

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Carbon-Based Electronics: Researchers Develop Foundation For Circuitry And Devices Based On Graphite - also here, here, here
  2. March 17, 2006 - Nanotubes Unfolded
Background


Optoelectronics

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - New process builds electronic function into optical fiber - also here, here, here
  2. March 17, 2006 - Holey Fiber
Background


Digital storage using nanofilm

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - Tiny Bubbles in Nanofilms
Background


Immersion lithography

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - New 'Liquid Lens' Data for Immersion Lithography - also here, here, here
Background


Dark matter detection

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - Cryogenic Phonon Scintillators to Help in Search for Dark Matter
Background


Galaxy evolution

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - Young Galaxies Were Hostile To Life
  2. March 17, 2006 - Smoking galaxy revealed - also here, here
  3. March 18, 2006 - The Cosmic Dance Of Distant Galaxies - also here, here
Background


Formation of ocean basins

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - New geosciences model explains ocean formation
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Compound from Coral Could Combat Cancer
  2. March 13, 2006 - Vaccinate against viruses to fight cancer
  3. March 13, 2006 - Vaccines 'may block many cancers'
  4. March 13, 2006 - New cell imaging can identify cancer cells
  5. March 13, 2006 - Study: Electricity kills cancer cells
  6. March 15, 2006 - Chillies turn up the heat on tumours
  7. March 15, 2006 - Pepper 'kills prostate cancer'
  8. March 15, 2006 - Researchers Link Human Papillomavirus (HPV) To Common Skin Cancer - also here
  9. March 15, 2006 - Gold Nanorods May Make Safer Cancer Treatment - also here, here, here
  10. March 16, 2006 - Molecule Targets And Kills Tumor Cells, Starves Blood Supply - also here, here
  11. March 16, 2006 - Broccoli, spinach help prevent pancreatic cancer
  12. March 16, 2006 - Researchers Find Ginseng May Improve Breast Cancer Outcomes - also here, here
  13. March 17, 2006 - Cancer Cells Lose Drug Resistance Following Electrical Stimulation In Vitro - also here
  14. March 18, 2006 - Researchers Reveal Possibility Of Separating Anticancer Properties Of Vitamin D - also here, here
  15. March 19, 2006 - Pepper Component Hot Enough To Trigger Suicide In Prostate Cancer Cells - also here
  16. March 19, 2006 - Hot chili peppers might help fight prostate cancer
Background


Optic nerve regrowth

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Optic nerve regrown with a nanofibre scaffold
  2. March 14, 2006 - Hamster Study Shows Nanofibers Knit Severed Neurons Together, Restore Vision
  3. March 14, 2006 - Nanotechnology brings brain recovery in sight
  4. March 14, 2006 - Nanofibers for brain repair
  5. March 14, 2006 - Nanotech helps blind hamsters see
Background


Computer simulation of virus

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Supercomputer builds a virus
  2. March 16, 2006 - Researchers Simulate Complete Structure Of Virus -- On A Computer - also here, here
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Researchers Reveal Mechanisms Behind A Class Of Oral Agents Used To Treat Type 2 Diabetes - also here
  2. March 16, 2006 - Study To Test Drug's Potential To Preserve Insulin Production In Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetics - also here
  3. March 17, 2006 - Diabetes Research Yielding Breakthrough Success: Bioengineering Team Successfully Growing Insulin-producing Cells In Lab - also here, here
Background


Ribozyme drug for obesity and insulin resistance

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Fat rats reveal why short-term overeating can lead to obesity and diabetes
Background, Background, Background


Synthesis of antibiotics

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Creation Of Antibiotic In Test Tube Holds Promise For Better Antibiotics - also here
Background


Vaccines

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Outsmarting The Smartie Bug: Complete Description Of Pneumococcal Vaccine Targets
  2. March 13, 2006 - Do plants have the potential to vaccinate against HIV? - also here
  3. March 18, 2006 - New slow-release vaccine heralded
Background


Improved diagnostic for disease marker proteins

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - New Test To Detect Rare Proteins In Blood; Earliest Warning Of Cancer And Other Diseases - also here
Background


Plant sterol control of cholesterol

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Plant Sterol Pills Significantly Lower LDL Cholesterol - also here
Background


Genetic networks for maintaining DNA integrity

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - 'Genetic Network' Guards Against Lethal DNA Damage
Background


Halophilic bacteria

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Researchers discover new microbial life in the Mediterranean
Background


Marijuana impairment of memory

References:
  1. March 13, 2006 - Up in Smoke: Marijuana Toasts Memory
Background


Hyperactive memory

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Researchers Identify New Form Of Superior Memory Syndrome - also here, here
  2. March 14, 2006 - Can't Forget to Remember
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Alzheimer's Study First To Explain Death Of Brain Cells - also here
  2. March 14, 2006 - Blood pressure drugs may slash Alzheimer's risk
  3. March 14, 2006 - Medications that lower blood pressure linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease
  4. March 14, 2006 - Study Aims To Halt Alzheimer's By Blocking Enzyme - also here
  5. March 15, 2006 - Seed of Alzheimer's spotted
  6. March 16, 2006 - 'Memory robber' Alzheimer's sign
  7. March 17, 2006 - Research Team Identifies Cause Of Memory Loss; Identification May Lead To Drug Development Targeted To Dementia - also here
  8. March 19, 2006 - Researchers Identify Cause Of Memory Loss; Identification May Lead To Targeted Drug Development For Dementia
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Human deaths from bird flu to pass 100
  2. March 14, 2006 - Hungarian researchers find H5N1 bird flu vaccine for humans
  3. March 14, 2006 - As 100th bird flu death looms, scientists say pandemic no nearer
  4. March 15, 2006 - Old drug may become new bird flu weapon
  5. March 17, 2006 - New Study Describes Key Protein From Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Flu Virus And How It Might Mutate - also here
  6. March 17, 2006 - It's a leap but scientists find threat to humans in avian flu
  7. March 18, 2006 - Minor Mutations In Avian Flu Virus Increase Chances Of Human Infection - also here, here
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Menstrual blood yields stem cells
  2. March 14, 2006 - Potential heart benefit found in stem cells
Background


AIDS

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Study: Cells have a natural defense against HIV - also here, here
  2. March 17, 2006 - Proteins come full circle
Background


Reversal of cardiovascular disease with statins

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Drugs 'can reverse heart disease'
  2. March 27, 2006 - Intensive Statin Therapy May Partially Reverse Plaque Build-up In Arteries
Background


Drug delivery

References:
  1. March 14, 2006 - Yet another use found for nanoparticles
Background


DNA topoisomerases

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Researchers Unravel DNA Tangles And Enzyme Seamstresses - also here
Background


Imaging gene expression

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Molecule by molecule, new assay shows real-time gene activity - also here
  2. March 16, 2006 - Imaging Single Molecules Opens New Way To Study Gene Expression, Protein Production
  3. March 20, 2006 - First 'Movie' Of Gene Expression In Live Cells Shows Proteins Being Made In Small Bursts - also here
Background


Mechanism involved in artery thickening

References:
  1. March 15, 2006 - Found: Key 'go between' in heart disease
Background


Discrete and analogue quantity processing

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Scientists Discover the Part of the Brain That Causes Some People to Be Lousy in Math - also here, here
Background


Learning in the visual cortex

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Research finds unexpected activity in visual cortex
Background


Coupled ion channels on neurons

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Controlling Your (Nerve) Impulses: Ion Channel Interaction Sheds Light On Epilepsy, Other Neurological Disorders - also here
Background


New genomics projects

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Comprehensive Strategy Seeks To Identify Structural Variation In Human Genome - also here
Background


Interspecies virus transfer

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - Evolution In Action: Why Some Viruses Jump Species - also here, here
Background


MicroRNA

References:
  1. March 16, 2006 - MiRNA Fingerprint Identified In Platelet Formation - also here, here
Background


Cholesterol

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - Research Mice Help Scientists Understand The Complexities Of Cholesterol - also here, here
Background


Super-stimulation of the immune system

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - Catastrophic immune response may have caused drug trial horror
  2. March 17, 2006 - Tragic drug trial spotlights potent molecule
Background


Asthma and natural-killer T cells

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - New View Of Asthma's Cause: Previously Unrecognized Immune Cell May Provide A Better Target For Therapy - also here, here
Background


Dosage compensation complex

References:
  1. March 17, 2006 - Targeting the dosage compensation complex
  2. March 17, 2006 - Genetic Differences Between Males And Females Might Be Evened Out At The Rim Of The Nucleus - also here, here
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. March 18, 2006 - Brain-scanning Technology Reveals How We Process Brands And Products - also here, here
Background


Specialized brains cells and olfaction

References:
  1. March 19, 2006 - Neuroscientists Discover New Cell Type That May Help Brain Maintain Memories Of Smells
  2. March 19, 2006 - New clues to remembering smells
Background


Copyright © 2006 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved