Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 6, Number 12
March 19, 2007

Physical sciences and technology

Controlled fusion
Solar cells
Global warming
Virtual reality
Quantum complementarity
Survey of supermassive black holes
Hydrocarbons on Titan
CO2 absorption in soil
Nanoscale lasers
High-energy cosmic rays
Tremor and earthquakes
Quantum computing
D-meson mixing
Globular clusters
Photonic computing
Quantum optics
Single photon observation
Plate tectonics and mountain formation
Carbon sequestration
String-net liquids
Hydrogen storage
Paleoclimatology
Model quantum systems
Water on Mars
Gamma-ray bursts
Terahertz filter
Nanowire magnetic memory
Polar ice sheet melting
Internet redesign
Nanomagnetism and digital data storage
Friction in MEMS
Testing modified Newtonian dynamics
Metamaterials
Fine structure constant

Life sciences

THP and adolescent moods
Early H. sapiens growth profile
Australopiths
Synthetic biology
Cancer biology
Memory and DNA methylation
Visceral fat, IL-6, and inflammation
Brain-imaging studies
Speech perception
Autophagy
Aging and evolution
Metagenomics
Gene transcription
Olfaction
Speciation
Genetics of personality traits
Category learning
Genetic drift
Associative memory and sensory neurons
Sensory modalities
Ribozymes
Detection and repair of DNA damage
Microbial genomes

Health and medicine

Cancer
Rheumatoid arthritis and cancer
Diabetes
Exercise and memory
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis vaccines
Stem cells
Antibiotics
Genetics of sleep deprivation response
Health benefits of epicatechin in cocoa
Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid
Avian flu
Stress and nerve cell damage
RNA splicing antisense therapy
Stem cells and cancer
Alzheimer's disease
Heredity and cardiovascular risk
Malaria
Schizophrenia
Cancer and the immune system
Anti-depressants and VEGF
Autism
Periodontitis and pre-diabetes
Gallium as an antibiotic
Early indicators of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
NF-kB and inflammatory bowel disease
Gene therapy
Nanoparticle cancer drug delivery
Sleep apnea, C-reactive protein, and stroke
Genetics of body size
Virus therapy for cancer
Parkinson's disease
Fructose and obesity
Flavonoids
Prions
Exercise, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease


Controlled fusion

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - A Step Toward Fusion Energy - also here
Background


Solar cells

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Solar Energy Conversion Offers A Solution To Help Mitigate Global Warming
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - How Will Climate Change Affect India's Monsoon Season?
  2. March 13, 2007 - Warming may cause food, water shortages: U.N. report
  3. March 14, 2007 - Arctic impact on global warming lures scientists
  4. March 15, 2007 - World may get greener, then wilt, due to warming
  5. March 15, 2007 - Winter Warmest on Record Worldwide - also here
  6. March 16, 2007 - Earth swelters in warmest winter since 1880
  7. March 16, 2007 - This was world's warmest recorded winter - also here, here
  8. March 16, 2007 - Global December-February Temperature Warmest On Record
  9. March 16, 2007 - Winter warmth breaks all records
  10. March 16, 2007 - Earth bakes in hottest quarter on record
  11. March 16, 2007 - Arctic Sea Ice Decline May Trigger Climate Change Cascade - also here, here
  12. March 18, 2007 - NASA Studies How Airborne Particles Affect Climate Change
Background


Virtual reality

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Virtual Reality for Virtual Eternity - also here
Background, Background


Quantum complementarity

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Physicists Modify Double-Slit Experiment to Confirm Einstein's Belief
Background


Survey of supermassive black holes

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Discovery Makes Black Holes More Puzzling
  2. March 15, 2007 - New Panorama Reveals More Than A Thousand Black Holes - also here, here, here
Background, Background


Hydrocarbons on Titan

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Huge seas spotted on Saturn's moon Titan
  2. March 13, 2007 - Cassini Images Seas on Saturn's Moon Titan
  3. March 13, 2007 - New Images: Huge Seas on Saturn's Moon Titan
  4. March 13, 2007 - Scientists find possible hydrocarbon seas on Saturn's moon Titan
  5. March 14, 2007 - Possible Seas Discovered on Saturn Moon - also here, here, here
  6. March 14, 2007 - Hydrocarbon glaciers and seas may dot Titan's poles
  7. March 14, 2007 - Seas Discovered On Saturn's Moon Titan
  8. March 14, 2007 - Probe reveals seas on Saturn moon
  9. March 14, 2007 - Possible seas spotted on Saturn moon
  10. March 14, 2007 - Cassini Probe Finds Evidence of Seas on Saturn Moon
  11. March 24, 2007 - Radar reveals signs of seas on Titan
Background


CO2 absorption in soil

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Stimulates Soils To Release, Not Store, CO2 - also here, here, here, here
Background


Nanoscale lasers

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Creating a nanoscale laser
Background, Background


High-energy cosmic rays

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Turning Starlight into Gamma Rays
  2. March 23, 2007 - New Mechanism For Producing Cosmic Gamma Rays From Starlight Is Proposed - also here
  3. April 3, 2007 - Seeking the Origins of Cosmic Rays
Background


Tremor and earthquakes

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Source of mysterious seismic rumblings revealed
  2. March 15, 2007 - Scientists Explain Source Of Mysterious Tremors Emanating From Fault Zones - also here, here
Background, Background


Quantum computing

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Photon's life cycle 'watched' in full
  2. March 14, 2007 - Trapped light spurs quantum computing
  3. March 15, 2007 - Einstein's box snares photon
Background


D-meson mixing

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Meson Messes With Standard Model
  2. March 17, 2007 - New form of matter-antimatter transformation observed for first time - also here, here, here
Background


Globular clusters

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Star Family Seen Through Dusty Fog - also here, here
  2. March 19, 2007 - New Family of Stars Found in Milky Way
Background


Photonic computing

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Research project could help create computers that run on light
Background


Quantum optics

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - 'Plug and Play' Source of Single Photons
  2. March 17, 2007 - A Single-Photon Server with Just One Atom - also here, here, here, here
Background,

Single photon observation

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Physicists watch the "birth, life and death of a photon"
  2. April 2, 2007 - Life And Death Of A Photon 'Filmed' For The First Time
Background


Plate tectonics and mountain formation

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Australian discovery solves mystery of the Andes
  2. March 15, 2007 - Geophysicists offer explanation for Andes formation
  3. March 15, 2007 - Why are the Andes so tall?
Background


Carbon sequestration

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - In a Test of Capturing Carbon Dioxide, Perhaps a Way to Temper Global Warming
Background


String-net liquids

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - The universe is a string-net liquid
Background


Hydrogen storage

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Hydrogen Storage: Researchers Achieve Technology Breakthrough
Background


Paleoclimatology

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Turkey's Lake Van Provides Precise Insights Into Eurasia's Climate History - also here, here
Background


Model quantum systems

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Physicists Tailor Magnetic Pairings In Nanoscale Semiconductors - also here, here
Background


Water on Mars

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - What Lies Beneath - also here
  2. March 15, 2007- Giant Pool of Water Ice at Mars' South Pole
  3. March 15, 2007 - Mars Pole Holds Enough Ice to Flood Planet, Radar Study Shows
  4. March 16, 2007 - Vast ice deposits at Mars south pole
  5. March 17, 2007 - Mars' South Pole Ice Deep and Wide - also here, here, here, here
  6. March 20, 2007 - Probing Mars's Hidden Glaciers
Background


Gamma-ray bursts

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - First science from the Large Binocular Telescope
  2. March 17, 2007 - Robotic Telescope Unravels Mystery Of Cosmic Blasts - also here, here, here
Background


Terahertz filter

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Scientists develop new terahertz material
  2. March 29, 2007 - Terahertz filter could harness unused spectrum
Background


Nanowire magnetic memory

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Nanowires could boost memory density
Background


Polar ice sheet melting

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Ice sheet complexity leaves sea level rise uncertain
  2. March 17, 2007 - Warming Oceans Threaten Antarctic Glaciers - also here, here
Background


Internet redesign

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - New Program Aims To Overhaul The Internet - also here
Background


Nanomagnetism and digital data storage

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - New Magnetic Switching Method Could Dramatically Speed Up Data Storage - also here
Background, Background, Background


Friction in MEMS

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Combating Friction and Stiction - also here
Background


Testing modified Newtonian dynamics

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Experiment sets the ultimate test for Newton's laws
  2. March 20, 2007 - Can Newton's 2nd Law be Violated on Earth?
Background


Metamaterials

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Double-negative metamaterial edges towards the visible
Background


Fine structure constant

References:
  1. March 17, 2007 - No such thing as a constant constant?
  2. March 23, 2007 - Probe seeks changes in fine-structure constant
  3. April 3, 2007 - Examination Of Radiation Left From Birth Of Universe Could Alter Theories - also here, here
Background



THP and adolescent moods

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Scientists Find Hormone Activity Explains Adolescent Mood Swings - also here
  2. March 12, 2007 - Hormonal Reversal During Puberty Keeps Teens Totally Anxious
  3. March 12, 2007 - Hormone turns cute kids into horror teens
  4. March 12, 2007 - Teenage mood swing hormone found
  5. March 12, 2007 - Chemical reactions in the brain force teenagers' mood swings
Background, Background


Early H. sapiens growth profile

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - How Long is a Child a Child? - also here, here
  2. March 12, 2007 - Why Children Never Leave Home: Evolution
  3. March 13, 2007 - 160,000-year-old jawbone redefines origins of the species
  4. March 15, 2007 - Fossil from 160,000 years ago shows growth profile similar to modern man - also here
Background


Australopiths

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Human Ancestors Had Short Legs For Combat, Not Just Climbing
Background


Synthetic biology

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Microsoft Goes Bio
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Lung Cancer-derived EGFR Mutants Exhibit Intrinsic Differences In Inhibitor Sensitivity
  2. March 15, 2007 - Researchers ID role of key protein in tumor growth
  3. March 17, 2007 - One Wwox Isn't Enough To Protect Against Cancer
Background


Memory and DNA methylation

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - How to Make - or Break - Memory
  2. March 14, 2007 - Making Memories Stick
  3. March 14, 2008 - DNA silencer also controls memory formation
  4. March 15, 2007 - Making Memories That Last A Lifetime - also here
Background


Visceral fat, IL-6, and inflammation

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Belly Fat May Drive Inflammatory Processes Associated With Disease - also here
Background, Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - For Easy Tasks, Brain Preps And Decides Together
  2. March 16, 2007 - Fears Learned By Observing Others Are Similar To Those Learned From Direct Experience - also here
Background


Speech perception

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Making Sense Of The World Through A Cochlear Implant - also here
Background, Background


Autophagy

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Cannibalistic Signals Help Mammalian Embryos Develop Normally
Background, Background


Aging and evolution

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Aging Boosts Chances That A Family Line Will Be Long-lived - also here
Background, Background


Metagenomics

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Global ocean sampling expedition
  2. March 14, 2007 - Seas Yield Surprising Catch of Unknown Genes
  3. March 14, 2007 - Ocean home to new proteins, families
  4. March 15, 2007 - Darwin's Famous Finches And Venter's Marine Microbes - also here, here
Background, Background


Gene transcription

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Stability of mRNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes modulates mRNA transcription - also here
Background


Olfaction

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Explaining Why We Smell Better When We Sniff - also here, here
Background


Speciation

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Species evolve faster in cooler climes
  2. March 15, 2007 - High on Speciation
  3. March 15, 2007 - Study Challenges Theories on Species - also here, here
  4. March 15, 2007 - Life is faster in the temperate zone
  5. March 17, 2007 - Researchers Debunk Belief Species Evolve Faster In Tropics - also here
Background


Genetics of personality traits

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Genes plus parenting may promote shyness, anxiety
Background


Category learning

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Human Perceptual Learning As a Two-stage Process - also here
Background, Background


Genetic drift

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Remote Sheep Population Resists Genetic Drift - also here
Background


Associative memory and sensory neurons

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Associative Memory -- Learning At All Levels - also here
Background, Background


Sensory modalities

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Working in combination, human senses seem almost superheroic
Background


Ribozymes

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - RNA Enzyme Structure Offers A Glimpse Into The Origins Of Life - also here
Background, Background


Detection and repair of DNA damage

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Scientists Discover Cellular 'SOS' Signal In Response To UV Skin Damage - also here, here
Background, Background


Microbial genomes

References:
  1. March 17, 2007 - Improved Computational Tool Lets Researchers Browse Microbial Genomes
Background, Background, Background



Cancer

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Early infection tied to leukemia risk in childhood
  2. March 12, 2007 - Test For P53 Needed To Prescreen Patients For Blood Cancer Drugs
  3. March 13, 2007 - Glaxo breast cancer pill wins FDA approval
  4. March 13, 2007 - FDA Approves Advanced Breast Cancer Drug - also here, here
  5. March 13, 2007 - FDA Approves New Drug to Treat Aggressive Breast Cancer
  6. March 13, 2007 - Genetic Pathways To Curable And Incurable Forms Of Pancreatic Cancer Identified
  7. March 13, 2007 - Molecular Differences Between Early And Advanced Melanomas Could Provide New Drug Targets - also here, here
  8. March 13, 2007 - Cancer-causing Compound Can Be Triggered By Vitamin C - also here
  9. March 13, 2007 - Which Breast Cancer Patients Need Chemotherapy? - also here
  10. March 14, 2007 - Green tea plus painkiller slows prostate cancer
  11. March 14, 2007 - Potential Target For Treatment Of Mixed Lineage Leukemia Identified - also here
  12. March 14, 2007 - How Some Molecules Inhibit Growth Of Lung Cancer Cells - also here, here
  13. March 14, 2007 - Two biologics studied for multiple myeloma
  14. March 15, 2007 - High blood sugar tied to increased cancer risk
  15. March 15, 2007 - Obesity Dramatically Increases Death Rate From Prostate Cancer - also here
  16. March 15, 2007 - Blood Pressure Drug Shrinks Lung Cancer Tumors In Mice - also here
  17. March 15, 2007 - Hormone eyed as cancer treatment: study
  18. March 16, 2007 - Tree bark extract might help treat rare eye cancer
  19. March 16, 2007 - Dietary vitamin C may prevent oral pre-cancer
  20. March 16, 2007 - Scientists Discover New Approach To Treat Virus-induced Lymphomas - also here
  21. March 16, 2007 - Soy Found Protective Against Localized Prostate Cancer - also here, here
  22. March 16, 2007 - Liverpool to trial new pancreatic cancer therapy - also here
Background


Rheumatoid arthritis and cancer

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Link Between Rheumatoid Arthritis And Cancer
Background, Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Soft drinks associated with diabetes, report finds
  2. March 14, 2007 - New Project To Analyze Why Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Insulin Resistance Are So Closely Linked - also here
Background


Exercise and memory

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Study shows why exercise boosts brainpower
Background, Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Antifungal Drug Kills Tuberculosis Bug - also here
  2. March 15, 2007 - A More Reliable Test For Latent TB - also here
Background


Tuberculosis vaccines

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Old vaccine hits TB like a blast from the past
  2. March 12, 2007 - Old vaccines may be better than new
  3. March 18, 2007 - Older TB vaccines 'work better'
Background, Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Molecular Switch Holds Key To Reserve Supply Of Muscle Stem Cells
  2. March 12, 2007 - Human stem cells battle degenerative brain diseases
  3. March 12, 2007 - Stem Cells Act Through Multiple Mechanisms To Benefit Mice With Neurodegenerative Disease - also here
  4. March 12, 2007 - Study on mice is successful, Burnham says
  5. March 13, 2007 - Testing Adult Stem Cells For Heart Damage Repair - also here
  6. March 16, 2007 - Chemical Cues Turn Embryonic Stem Cells Into Cerebellar Neurons - also here, here
  7. March 16, 2007 - Medical Center Performs State's First Stem Cell Heart Regeneration Therapy
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Bacterial Walls Come Tumbling Down
  2. March 17, 2007 - Trojan Horse Strategy Defeats Drug-resistant Bacteria - also here
Background


Genetics of sleep deprivation response

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Performing Under Sleep Deprivation: Its In Your Genes
Background


Health benefits of epicatechin in cocoa

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Cocoa 'Vitamin' Health Benefits Could Outshine Penicillin - also here, here, here
Background


Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid

References:
  1. March 12, 2007 - Food Supplement Could Prevent Development Of Diabetes And Atherosclerosis
Background, Background, Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Village ways fuel bird flu spread in rural Egypt
  2. March 16, 2007 - Indonesian man dies of bird flu: health ministry
  3. March 16, 2007 - Indonesia confirms 65th bird flu death
  4. March 18, 2007 - Bird flu found in endangered Japanese eagle
Background


Stress and nerve cell damage

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Scarred for life: Rat nerve cells damaged by stress
  2. March 15, 2007 - The Day After A Stressful Event, Rats Lose Brain Cells - also here, here
Background


RNA splicing antisense therapy

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Correcting RNA Splicing May Help Treat Spinal Muscular Atrophy - also here
Background, Background


Stem cells and cancer

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Study Questions 'Cancer Stem Cell' Hypothesis In Breast Cancer - also here
  2. March 14, 2007 - New cell type identified in cancer development - also here
Background, Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Study Confirms Imaging Compound Identifies Amyloid-beta In Human Brain
  2. March 15, 2007 - French firm develops possible test for Alzheimer's
  3. March 16, 2007 - Mid-life cholesterol dip may signal mental decline
Background


Heredity and cardiovascular risk

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - Long-lived Parents Provide Health Benefits
  2. March 13, 2007 - Offspring whose parents have long lives appear to have lower heart risks in middle age
Background


Malaria

References:
  1. March 13, 2007 - G6PD Deficiency Is Associated With Significant Protection Against Severe, Life-threatening Malaria
  2. March 13, 2007 - Malaria: The Right Vaccine In The Right Place?
Background


Schizophrenia

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Brain's 'Default Mode' Awry In Schizophrenia
  2. March 14, 2007 - Abnormalities Of The Mouth Associated With Schizophrenia
  3. March 15, 2007 - Schizophrenia Much More Common In Certain Localities - also here
Background


Cancer and the immune system

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Mechanisms Involved With Tumor Relapse Identified - also here, here
Background, Background


Anti-depressants and VEGF

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - How Anti-Depressants Create New Brain Cells
Background


Autism

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Gene That May Lead to Autism Identified - also here
  2. March 15, 2007 - Copy number linked to autism
  3. March 16, 2007 - Tiny, Spontaneous Gene Mutations May Boost Autism Risk - also here, here
  4. March 16, 2007 - New Gene Mutations Linked to Autism
  5. March 16, 2007 - Autism Risk May Lie in Fragile Areas of Genetic Code
  6. March 18, 2007 - Fear centre 'shrinks' in autism
Background


Periodontitis and pre-diabetes

References:
  1. March 14, 2007 - Periodontal diseases may aggravate pre-diabetic characteristics - also here
  2. March 19, 2007 - Animal study links prediabetes and gum disease
Background, Background


Gallium as an antibiotic

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Mighty Metal Vanquishes Super-Bacteria
  2. March 16, 2007 - Gallium: A New Antibacterial Agent? - also here
  3. March 19, 2007 - Bacterial Bait and Switch: Germs Tricked into Absorbing Wrong Element
  4. March 19, 2007 - Research discovers new way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  5. March 19, 2007 - Trojan horse strategy defeats drug-resistant bacteria
Background


Early indicators of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Children's Cognitive Performance: A Potential Indicator Of Bipolar Disorder And Schizophrenia - also here
Background


NF-kB and inflammatory bowel disease

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Researchers Identify Molecular Basis Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease - also here
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Gene Therapy For Blindness Clears Hurdle In Mice
Background


Nanoparticle cancer drug delivery

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - No Carrier Necessary: This Drug Delivers Itself
Background, Background, Background


Sleep apnea, C-reactive protein, and stroke

References:
  1. March 15, 2007 - Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Show Silent Brain Infarction Lesions - also here
Background, Background, Background


Genetics of body size

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - How fat genes differ from thin ones
Background


Virus therapy for cancer

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Researchers Use Poliovirus To Destroy Neuroblastoma Tumors In Mice - also here
Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - New Hope For Parkinson's in Understanding Causes Of Cell Death - also here
Background


Fructose and obesity

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Fructose-sweetened Beverages Increases Risk Of Obesity In Rats
Background, Background


Flavonoids

References:
  1. March 16, 2007 - Apple consumers reap heart-health benefits thanks to flavonoid content
Background


Prions

References:
  1. March 18, 2007 - New twist in tale of BSE's beginnings
Background


Exercise, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. March 18, 2007 - Heart Disease In A Marathon Runner: Is Too Much Exercise A Bad Thing?
Background


Copyright © 2007 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved