Open Questions Chronicle

[OQC Home] [Open Questions] [Site Map] [Previous] [Next]

Volume 6, Number 21
May 21, 2007

Physical sciences and technology

Black hole limits on braneworld extents
Dark matter
Global warming
Large Hadron Collider
Black holes
Extrasolar planets
Spintronics
Nanotechnology
Sharply reduced size of nuclear magnetic resonance devices
Carbon nanotubes
Enceladus
CO2 absorption by the Southern Ocean
CO2 recycling by mesoscale eddies in the ocean
Weighing black holes
Star formation
Bose-Einstein condensates of polaritons
Quantum dots
Hydrogen production on demand

Life sciences

Circadian clock gene and metabolism
Dynamin and synapse activity
Antisense RNA
Metagenomics
Catalog of fruit fly and roundworm genomic elements
Fruit flies and free will
Brain-imaging studies
B cell development
MicroRNA control of gene expression
Bacterial gene transfer
Immune response regulation
Mathematical biology
New types of RNA gene regulation
Linkage between metabolism and DNA replication
Cancer biology
Memory-related physical changes to synapses
3D growth of neurons and gene expression
Neanderthals
Brain development
Latent cell memory
The immune system and activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Methylation, ubiquitylation, and gene expression
Computer simulation of C. elegans development
Asymmetric development of C. Elegans
Bioinformatics
Animal brain size and intelligence

Health and medicine

Cancer
Avian flu
Anxiety and coronary artery disease
Diabetes
Importance of calorie reduction over exercise for weight loss
Alzheimer's disease
Hypertension
Bioflavonoids
Polyphenols and energy metabolism
Autoimmune disease treatments
P53 and cancer
Parkinson's disease
Heart failure and sleep apnea
Stem cells
Tuberculosis
Multiple sclerosis
Sleep and the immune system
Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids
Malaria
Health benefits of Mediterranean diet
Herpes virus and the immune system
Agricultural biotechnology
Antipsychotics and schizophrenia
Alternatives to HRT for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease
Anti-allergy vaccine
MicroRNA therapy for cholesterol control
Diet comparisons
Wnt and hair follicle regeneration
Endocannabinoid and stress control
Cancer and stem cells
AIDS
Nicotine addiction
Benefits of antioxidant in heart failure
Dietary effects related to COPD
Health benefits of lipoic acid
Depression and serotonin control



Physical sciences and technology


Black hole limits on braneworld extents

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Black hole shrinks braneworld dimensions
Background, Background


Dark matter

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Hubble Finds Ghostly Ring of Dark Matter - also here
  2. May 15, 2007 - Hubble Finds Ring of Dark Matter
  3. May 15, 2007 - Hubble Finds Ring Of Dark Matter - also here
  4. May 15, 2007 - Hubble Telescope Finds Ring of Dark Matter
  5. May 15, 2007 - Dark Matter Takes a Solo
  6. May 15, 2007 - Dark Matter Halo May Mark Ancient Galactic Collision
  7. May 15, 2007 - Cosmic crash leaves ring of dark matter: NASA
  8. May 15, 2007 - NASA says it has found proof of existence of dark matter
  9. May 15, 2007 - A ghostly halo that could unlock the dark secret of the universe
  10. May 15, 2007 - The prints of darkness
  11. May 15, 2007 - Hubble Reveals Ghostly Ring of Dark Matter
  12. May 15, 2007 - Dark matter has a ring of truth
  13. May 16, 2007 - Ghostly ring provides strong evidence for dark matter
  14. May 16, 2007 - Hubble sees ring of dark matter
  15. May 16, 2007 - NASA Finds New Evidence of Dark Matter
  16. May 16, 2007 - Astronomer Reports New Evidence of Dark Matter
  17. May 17, 2007 - Hubble sees dark matter ring in a galaxy cluster
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Vast Regions Of West Antarctica Melted In Recent Past, NASA Finds - also here
  2. May 15, 2007 - Big area of Antarctica melted, satellite finds
  3. May 15, 2007 - California-Sized Area of Ice Melts in Antarctica
  4. May 15, 2007 - Scientists Back Off Theory of a Colder Europe in a Warming World
  5. May 16, 2007 - Analysis Finds Large Antarctic Area Has Melted
  6. May 16, 2007 - Antarctic surface thaw 'most significant' in 30 years
  7. May 16, 2007 - Brazil Demonstrating That Reducing Tropical Deforestation Is Key Win-win Global Warming Solution - also here
  8. May 17, 2007 - Permanent Ice Fields Are Resisting Global Warming - also here, here
  9. May 17, 2007 - Small particles' big impact on climate
  10. May 19, 2007 - Emissions tied to global warming are on the rise
Background


Large Hadron Collider

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - A Giant Takes On Physics’ Biggest Questions
Background


Black holes

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Black Hole Spins as Fast as It Can
  2. May 17, 2007 - Adaptive optics leads the way to supermassive black holes - also here, here, here
  3. May 17, 2007 - Merging Black Holes Observed in New Detail
  4. May 18, 2007 - Adaptive Optics Pinpoints Two Supermassive Black Holes In Colliding Galaxies
Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Astronomers Detect Shadow Of Water World In Front Of Nearby Star
  2. May 16, 2007 - Strange alien world made of 'hot ice'
  3. May 16, 2007 - New planet may be covered with hot, solid water
  4. May 16, 2007 - Exotic World Said to Harbor 'Hot Ice'
  5. May 16, 2007 - Blazing hot ice planet found near star GJ 436
  6. May 17, 2007 - Hot "ice" may cover recently discovered planet - also here, here
  7. May 18, 2007 - NASA Planet-Hunting Mission Could Find Spock's Homeworld
  8. May 19, 2007 - Extrasolar Planet Is Loaded with Hot Ice
Background


Spintronics

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Silicon-based 'spintronics' device developed
  2. May 16, 2007 - Spintronics Breaks the Silicon Barrier
  3. May 17, 2007 - Electrons hold their spin in silicon
  4. May 20, 2007 - Scientists Put 'Spin' In Silicon, Advance New Age Of Electronics - also here, here
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Move over Elmer's: Nanoglue is thinner, stickier
  2. May 17, 2007 - New nano-glue likes it hot
  3. May 17, 2007 - Nanoglue gets stickier when hot
  4. May 17, 2007 - Inexpensive 'Nanoglue' Can Bond Nearly Anything Together - also here, here
Background


Sharply reduced size of nuclear magnetic resonance devices

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Advance Relies On Microscopic Detector - also here, here
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Physicists Develop a Carbon Nanotube Aeroegel Optimizing Strength, Shape and Conductivity
Background


Enceladus

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Cracks on Enceladus Open and Close Under Saturn's Pull - also here
  2. May 16, 2007 - Frictional Heating Explains Plumes on Enceladus
  3. June 2, 2007 - Powering Enceladus' plumes
Background


CO2 absorption by the Southern Ocean

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Southern Ocean already losing ability to absorb CO2
  2. May 17, 2007 - Ocean May Be Losing Ability to Soak CO2 - also here
  3. May 17, 2007 - Polar ocean 'soaking up less CO2'
  4. May 17, 2007 - Climate change affects Southern Ocean carbon sink
  5. May 17, 2007 - Polar ocean is sucking up less carbon dioxide
  6. May 18, 2007 - Southern Ocean carbon sink filling up fast
  7. May 18, 2007 - Antarctic Ocean Losing Ability to Absorb Carbon Dioxide
  8. May 18, 2007 - As a carbon 'sink,' Southern Ocean may be plugged
  9. May 19, 2007 - Antarctic losing ability to absorb CO2
  10. May 19, 2007 - Southern Ocean Carbon Sink Weakened - also here
Background


CO2 recycling by mesoscale eddies in the ocean

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Don't Bet on the Bloomin' Plankton
Background, Background


Weighing black holes

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - New technique for 'weighing' black holes
  2. May 21, 2007 - How to Weigh a Black Hole
  3. May 22, 2007 - Scientists Find New Way to Measure Black Holes
  4. May 26, 2007 - Congestion gives clue to black holes' weight
  5. May 27, 2007 - Scientists Pioneer Technique for 'Weighing' Black Holes - also here, here, here
Background


Star formation

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Baby Stars Hatching in Orion's Head
Background


Bose-Einstein condensates of polaritons

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Physicists confirm existence of polariton condensate
  2. May 22, 2007 - New Substance Has Characteristics Of Superconductors And Lasers - also here
Background, Background


Quantum dots

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Making Strides In Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetectors - also here, here, here
Background


Hydrogen production on demand

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - New Process Generates Hydrogen From Aluminum Alloy To Run Engines, Fuel Cells
Background



Life sciences


Circadian clock gene and metabolism

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Internal-Clock Gene Implicated in Weight Gain
  2. May 18, 2007 - Clock Gene Plays Role In Weight Gain, Study Finds - also here
Background


Dynamin and synapse activity

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Study Revises Dynamin's Role In Nerve Cell Function - also here
Background


Antisense RNA

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Entirely New Process In Cell RNA Discovered
Background


Metagenomics

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Experts Sets 'Gold Standard' For Metagenomic Data Analysis - also here
Background, Background


Catalog of fruit fly and roundworm genomic elements

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Fly and worm models to teach researchers about human biology and medicine
Background


Fruit flies and free will

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Defending free will: A fruit fly makes choices
  2. May 16, 2007 - Do Fruit Flies Have Free Will? - also here
Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Considering 'What Might Have Been' Is Key In Evaluating Behavior
  2. May 15, 2007 - Pioneering study maps attention, memory and language links in the human brain
Background


B cell development

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - The Yin And The Yang Of B-cell Development
Background


MicroRNA control of gene expression

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Possible target found for boosting microRNA action
  2. May 17, 2007 - Newly Identified Mechanism For Silencing Genes Points To Possible Anti-cancer Strategies - also here
  3. May 17, 2007 - How MicroRNAs Block Protein Synthesis - also here
  4. May 17, 2007 - MicroRNAs block translation machinery
Background


Bacterial gene transfer

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - New Way To Calculate Speed Of Bacterial Sex Developed
Background


Immune response regulation

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - 'Nondanger' Signal Lowers Immune Reactions
Background


Mathematical biology

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Simple Equations Track Listeria Trails
Background


New types of RNA gene regulation

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - New RNA Muddies Gene Definition
Background


Linkage between metabolism and DNA replication

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Carbon Metabolism And DNA Replication Tightly Linked, Study Finds - also here, here
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Effect On Breast Tumors Of DNA Alternations In 3 Genes Described - also here, here
  2. May 18, 2007 - Cancer Agressiveness 'Triggered' By Bacteria
  3. May 18, 2007 - Role of autophagy in tumorigenesis
Background


Memory-related physical changes to synapses

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - First Images Of Brain Changes Associated With Memory Revealed
Background


3D growth of neurons and gene expression

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Growing Nerve Cells In 3-D Dramatically Affects Gene Expression - also here
Background


Neanderthals

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Dry period in Spain explains Neanderthals' last stand
Background


Brain development

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Cognitive Ability Mostly Developed Before Adolescence, NIH Study Says
  2. May 18, 2007 - NIH study tracks brain development in some 500 children across US
  3. May 18, 2007 - New study taking a close look at brain's growth
  4. May 19, 2007 - A First Glimpse At Healthy Brain And Behavioral Development - also here
Background


Latent cell memory

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Latent Memory Of Cells Comes To Life - also here
Background, Background


The immune system and activation-induced cytidine deaminase

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - New Method To Track Immune System Enzyme In Live Animals Developed - also here, here
Background


Methylation, ubiquitylation, and gene expression

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Researchers Identify Process That Enables Access To Genes
Background


Computer simulation of C. elegans development

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Executable Biology: Computer Science Sheds Light On Animal Development - also here
Background


Asymmetric development of C. Elegans

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Left-right Wiring Determined By Neural Communication In The Embryonic Worm - also here, here
Background


Bioinformatics

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Insignia: A New Way To Identify Viruses And Bacteria - also here
Background


Animal brain size and intelligence

References:
  1. May 20, 2007 - Bigger Is Smarter: Overall, Not Relative, Brain Size Predicts Intelligence - also here
Background



Health and medicine


Cancer

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - New survey lists hundreds of potential carcinogens
  2. May 14, 2007 - Inherited Genes Linked To Toxicity Of Leukemia Therapy - also here
  3. May 14, 2007 - Breast Cancer In A Test Tube Could Replace Animal Tests
  4. May 15, 2007 - Too much of a good thing? Vitamin link with cancer
  5. May 15, 2007 - Too many vitamins linked with prostate cancer
  6. May 15, 2007 - Study: Vitamins Tied to Prostate Cancer - also here
  7. May 15, 2007 - Vitamin-popping linked to prostate cancer
  8. May 15, 2007 - Professors develop protein to target cancer cells
  9. May 15, 2007 - Lessons From Ovarian Cells Migration: The Three 'Ws' Of Ovarian Cancer Spreading
  10. May 15, 2007 - Targets to tackle cancer by 2020
  11. May 16, 2007 - Heavy Multivitamin Use May Be Linked To Advanced Prostate Cancer
  12. May 16, 2007 - Multivitamin and prostate cancer link studied
  13. May 16, 2007 - Multivitamin prostate warning
  14. May 16, 2007 - Chromium in water can cause cancer: U.S. agency - also here
  15. May 16, 2007 - Boiling Broccoli Ruins Its Anti-cancer Properties, According To Study - also here
  16. May 16, 2007 - Web-based Program Could Ease Treatment Decisions For Prostate Cancer Patients - also here, here
  17. May 16, 2007 - Genetic Markers In Surrounding Tissues Linked To Breast Cancer Tumor Grade, Presence Of Metastases - also here
  18. May 16, 2007 - Tobacco And Alcohol Use Independently Increase Risk Of Head And Neck Cancer - also here
  19. May 16, 2007 - Alcohol Drinking Linked To Reduced Risk Of Renal Cell Cancer
  20. May 16, 2007 - Soy estrogens and breast cancer: Researcher offers overview
  21. May 17, 2007 - Tomatoes Don't Prevent Prostate Cancer
  22. May 17, 2007 - No Magic Tomato? Study Breaks Link Between Lycopene And Prostate Cancer Prevention - also here, here
  23. May 17, 2007 - Chromium 6 In Drinking Water Causes Cancer In Lab Animals - also here
  24. May 17, 2007 - Drug replaces breast chemotherapy
  25. May 18, 2007 - Women could avoid chemotherapy with hormone drug
  26. May 18, 2007 - Moderate drinking may lower kidney cancer risk
  27. May 18, 2007 - Tomatoes fail as prostate cancer preventive - also here
  28. May 18, 2007 - Study Finds Strong Anti-Cancer Properties In Cruciferous Veggies
  29. May 18, 2007 - Combining NSAIDs With Chemotherapy, Radiation May Improve Cancer Treatment - also here
  30. May 18, 2007 - Vaccine highly effective against pre-cancerous lesions
  31. May 20, 2007 - Scientists Activate New Cancer Drug Using Light And Oxygen
  32. May 21, 2007 - Tomatoes don't protect your prostate
  33. May 21, 2007 - Study: Water chemical can cause cancer
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Asia to test injectable drug to fight bird,human flu
  2. May 14, 2007 - Pregnant Indonesian woman dies of bird flu
  3. May 14, 2007 - Indonesia confirms 76th bird flu death
Background


Anxiety and coronary artery disease

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Anxiety increases mortality risk in heart patients
  2. May 15, 2007 - Over Time, Those Who Find Inner Calm Live Longer, Healthier Lives
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - High fiber and magnesium may cut diabetes risk
  2. May 14, 2007 - Team unearths genetic risk factors for diabetes
  3. May 15, 2007 - Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes
  4. May 17, 2007 - Decoding Protein Structures Helps Illuminate Cause Of Diabetes - also here, here
  5. May 18, 2007 - How Insulin-producing Cells Develop: New Finding Could Help Fight Against Diabetes - also here, here
Background


Importance of calorie reduction over exercise for weight loss

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Cutting Calories, Not Exercise, Plays Bigger Role In Maintaining Weight Loss
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - New Therapeutic Targets For Neurodegenerative Diseases
  2. May 15, 2007 - Alzheimer's Weight Gain Initiative Also Improved Patients' Intellectual Abilities
  3. May 17, 2007 - Simple tests may predict progression to Alzheimer's
  4. May 19, 2007 - Alzheimer's 'diet link' analysed
Background


Hypertension

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - One Pill May Be Better Than Two For Treating Patients With High Blood Pressure - also here
Background


Bioflavonoids

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - New Insights Into Contradictory Health Effects Of Bioflavonoids
Background


Polyphenols and energy metabolism

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Fatty Acid Catabolism Higher Due To Polyphenol Intake - also here
Background


Autoimmune disease treatments

References:
  1. May 14, 2007 - Glucosamine-like Supplement Inhibits Multiple Sclerosis, Type 1 Diabetes - also here, here
  2. May 18, 2007 - Natural Immune-control System May Aid Treatment Of Autoimmune Disease And Tissue Rejection - also here
  3. June 7, 2007 - Sugar supplement may treat immune disease
Background


P53 and cancer

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Chemotherapy Thwarted by Cancer-Killing Gene
  2. May 16, 2007 - Gene Thought To Assist Chemo May Help Cancer Thrive - also here
  3. May 16, 2007 - 'Guardian gene' may hinder some cancer treatments
  4. May 18, 2007 - 'Chemo' gene helps cancer thrive
  5. May 21, 2007 - Anti-cancer gene: not what it was thought
Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Coenzyme Q10 Does Not Improve Parkinson's Disease Symptoms
  2. May 16, 2007 - Short-term antioxidant doesn't help Parkinson's
  3. May 16, 2007 - Exercise May Aid Parkinson's Patients - also here, here
  4. May 17, 2007 - Implanting Dopamine Generators In Brain Cells Obtains Improvement In Parkinson's In Monkeys - also here
  5. May 17, 2007 - Violent Sleep Disorder Linked To A Form Of Dementia - also here
Background


Heart failure and sleep apnea

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Heart Failure Patients With Sleep Apnea At Greater Risk Of Death, According To Study
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Effort To Develop Patient-specific Stem Cell Lines Launched - also here
  2. May 17, 2007 - Geron says embryonic stem cells produce insulin
Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Vitamin D Supplements May Offer Cheap And Effective Immune System Boost Against TB - also here, here
Background


Multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Testosterone May Help Men With Multiple Sclerosis - also here
Background


Sleep and the immune system

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Sleepless For Science: Flies Show Link Between Sleep And Immune System - also here
Background, Background


Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Higher Intake Of Fish And Vitamin D Levels Linked To Lower Risk Of Age-related Macular Disease - also here
Background


Malaria

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Possible Way To Fight Cerebral Malaria: Give Patients Carbon Monoxide
  2. May 18, 2007 - Immune Gambians provide malaria vaccine hope
  3. May 18, 2007 - Antibody-based Therapies Effective At Controlling Malaria - also here
Background


Health benefits of Mediterranean diet

References:
  1. May 15, 2007 - Mediterranean Diet Halves Risk Of Progressive Lung Disease - also here
  2. May 15, 2007 - Med diet 'cuts lung disease risk'
Background


Herpes virus and the immune system

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Healthier With Herpesviruses?
  2. May 16, 2007 - Herpesviruses might have benefits
  3. May 21, 2007 - Herpes Infection May Be Symbiotic, Help Beat Back Some Bacteria
Background, Background


Agricultural biotechnology

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - U.S. approves GMO rice to produce human proteins
Background


Antipsychotics and schizophrenia

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Chemical Maps Hint At Drug's Effects On Schizophrenia - also here
Background, Background


Alternatives to HRT for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors When Discontinuing Hormone Replacement Therapy - also here
  2. May 18, 2007 - Updated Recommendations On Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy From International Menopause Society - also here
Background


Anti-allergy vaccine

References:
  1. May 16, 2007 - Boost for anti-allergy vaccine
Background


MicroRNA therapy for cholesterol control

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - New gene therapy targets cholesterol
Background, Background


Diet comparisons

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Low-glycemic Load Diet May Be More Effective For Dieters With Certain Insulin Response Patterns
Background


Wnt and hair follicle regeneration

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - New Hope For Baldness Treatment: Hair Follicles Created For First Time In Mouse Study - also here
  2. May 17, 2007 - Hair Follicles Found Able to Regenerate
  3. May 17, 2007 - At Penn, the research is hair-raising, positively
  4. May 18, 2007 - Baldness breakthrough: Stem cells coaxed into growing hair
Background


Endocannabinoid and stress control

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - New Study Examines 'Brain's Own Marijuana' - also here
Background


Cancer and stem cells

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Pediatric Cancer Stem Cell Identified: Understanding The Origin Of ERMS - also here
Background, Background


AIDS

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - Quest For Effective HIV Vaccine Presents New Possibilities, Challenges
  2. May 17, 2007 - Experimental HIV vaccines offer only limited immunity
Background


Nicotine addiction

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - The Brain And Chronic Exposure To Nicotine
  2. May 20, 2007 - Nicotine Also Hooks Smokers By Enhancing Pleasure Of Experiences, Study Shows
Background


Benefits of antioxidant in heart failure

References:
  1. May 17, 2007 - New study: Pycnogenol reduces heart failure
  2. May 22, 2007 - Pine extract prevents heart failure damage in mice
Background


Dietary effects related to COPD

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Plant foods, whole grains help men breathe easier
Background


Health benefits of lipoic acid

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Lipoic Acid Explored As Anti-aging Compound - also here
Background, Background


Depression and serotonin control

References:
  1. May 18, 2007 - Mice On Prozac Help Scientists Find Better Depression Treatments
Background


Copyright © 2007 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved