Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 6, Number 25
June 18, 2007

Physical sciences and technology

Water on Titan
Black holes
Extrasolar planets
Unparticles
Nanotechnology
Gamma-ray bursts
Global warming
Carbon sequestration
Water on Mars
Galaxy mergers
Supernovae
Plasma space propulsion
Robotics
Baryons
Climate modeling
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in space
James Webb Space Telescope
Fuel cells
Quantum computing
Carbon nanotubes

Life sciences

Agricultural biotechnology
Origins of life
Mirror-touch synaesthesia
Brain asymmetry
Chromosome condensation
Cancer biology
X chromosome selection
Functional elements of the human genome
Nitrogen and forest CO2 absorption
Plant altruism
Evolution of altruism
Neanderthals, language, creativity, and schizophrenia
Brain-imaging studies
RNA translation
Protein recycling systems in the cell
DNA replication
Speciation
Protein networks and kinases
Limiting reuse of gene expression coactivators
Centromeres and chromatin
Evolutionary cost of avoiding predators
Fruit fly heterochromatin

Health and medicine

Stem cells
Parkinson's disease
Tuberculosis
Alzheimer's disease
Avian flu
Exercise and cardiovascular disease
Cancer
Diabetes
Rheumatoid arthritis
Pistachios and cholesterol
Stem cells and cancer
Celiac disease
Autism
Stem cells and Parkinson's disease
Heart disease 'obesity paradox'
Hypertension
Cardiovascular disease
Atherosclerosis
Anti-obesity drugs
Carotenoids and testosterone
Cancer vaccines
Sleep deprivation
Multiple sclerosis
Gene therapy
Histone deacetylase inhibitor therapeutics
Nanoparticle drug delivery
Mucosal surface immune function
Coffee and cholesterol
Herpes virus use of DNA repair process
Staphylococcus aureus infection
Mathematical model of sepsis
AIDS



Physical sciences and technology


Water on Titan

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Mysterious signal hints at subsurface ocean on Titan
Background


Black holes

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Why Monster Black Holes Don't Run Away
Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - New Earth or Planetary Hothouse?
  2. June 11, 2007 - Trickle of Planet Discoveries Becomes a Flood
  3. June 12, 2007 - Transit of Earth-like planet eludes astronomers
  4. June 14, 2007 - Hidden Planet Pushes Star's Ring A Billion Miles Off-center - also here, here
  5. June 15, 2007 - Computer models suggest planetary and extrasolar planet atmospheres
Background


Unparticles

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Professor proposes theory of unparticle physics
  2. June 13, 2007 - High-energy detectors might find 'unparticles'
  3. June 15, 2007 - Weird Physics Theory: Unparticle Stuff
  4. June 18, 2007 - The hunt for unparticles is on
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Scientists probe secret to silver's success
  2. June 13, 2007 - New fabrication technique yields nanoscale UV LEDs
  3. June 14, 2007 - Tiny spheres could control light
Background


Gamma-ray bursts

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Jets of matter clocked at near-light speed
  2. June 12, 2007 - Matter Flashed At Ultra Speed - also here
  3. June 13, 2007 - Automatic Telescope Spots Light-Speed Explosions
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Kilimanjaro's shrinking snow not sign of warming
  2. June 12, 2007 - Scientists to Canada: clean your dirty snow
  3. June 12, 2007 - The Woes Of Kilimanjaro: Don't Blame Global Warming - also here, here
  4. June 14, 2007 - Europe's Hot Future: Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions Urged To Avoid Dangerous Increases In Heat Stress
  5. June 15, 2007 - Mediterranean to get more deadly hot days: study
  6. June 15, 2007 - Mediterranean faces dangerous heat
  7. June 16, 2007 - Darker days during Arctic summer
Background


Carbon sequestration

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Carbon Capture And Storage To Combat Global Warming Examined - also here, here
Background


Water on Mars

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Strong evidence that Mars once had an ocean - also here
  2. June 13, 2007 - Evidence seen backing ancient Mars ocean shoreline
  3. June 13, 2007 - Mars's uphill ocean explained
  4. June 13, 2007 - Mars Probably Once Had A Huge Ocean
  5. June 13, 2007 - Mystery Solved: Mars Had Large Oceans
  6. June 13, 2007 - Mars Once Had Oceans, New Evidence Suggests
  7. June 14, 2007 - Mars -- Red Planet once blue planet
  8. June 14, 2007 - New evidence points to oceans on Mars - also here
  9. June 14, 2007 - Tipped-Over Mars Could Explain Ocean Riddle
Background


Galaxy mergers

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - It's a gas when galaxies merge - a lot of gas - also here, here
Background, Background


Supernovae

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Dual explosions marked death of huge distant star
  2. June 13, 2007 - Double explosion heralds the death of a very massive star - also here
  3. June 15, 2007 - Astronomers discover a stellar puzzle
  4. June 19, 2007 - Rare Star Explosion Follows A Flash Of Light
Background


Plasma space propulsion

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Scientists in Costa Rica set plasma engine record
  2. June 14, 2007 - Plasma rocket breaks endurance record
Background


Robotics

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Guessing Robots Predict Their Environments, Navigate Better
Background


Baryons

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Physicists Discover 'Triple-scoop' Baryon - also here
  2. June 18, 2007 - Researchers help find new sub-atomic particle
Background


Climate modeling

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - New Theory Aims To Explain Recent Temperature, Climate Extremes - also here, here
Background


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in space

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Spitzer Searches for the Origins of Life
Background


James Webb Space Telescope

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Construction begins on the James Webb Space Telescope's guidance sensor and imager
Background


Fuel cells

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Alternative Energy Comes Closer With Advances In Hydrogen Fuel Cell Sealing Technology
Background


Quantum computing

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - Superconducting Qubits Tie the NOT Gate
  2. June 17, 2007 - Atom trap is a step towards a quantum computer
  3. June 17, 2007 - Two Qubits In Action, New Step Towards The Quantum Computer - also here
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. June 17, 2007 - Nanotubes could make superstrong chips
Background



Life sciences


Agricultural biotechnology

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Scientists Dish Up Rice Vaccine to Fight Cholera
  2. June 11, 2007 - Cholera vaccine now easier to store and use
  3. June 11, 2007 - Rice Engineered to Carry Cholera Vaccine
  4. June 12, 2007 - Experts create cholera vaccine using rice protein
  5. June 12, 2007 - For Combating Cholera, Rice is Nice
  6. June 12, 2007 - Cholera vaccine delivered in GM rice
Background


Origins of life

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Scientists Propose The Kind Of Chemistry That Led To Life
Background


Mirror-touch synaesthesia

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Ouch, I saw that
  2. June 17, 2007 - Study may explain roots of empathy
  3. June 18, 2007 - Extreme empathy leaves people really touched
  4. June 18, 2007 - My Brain Feels Your Pain
  5. June 18, 2007 - Some people really do feel your pain
Background


Brain asymmetry

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Stroke Study Sheds Light On Left-right Brain Divide - also here, here
Background


Chromosome condensation

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Researchers Shed Light On Shrinking Of Chromosomes - also here, here
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Gene Switched Off In Cancer Can Be Turned On, Researchers Discover - also here, here
  2. June 14, 2007 - How Tumor Cells Home In On The Lymphatic System - also here
  3. June 14, 2007 - Antitumor Compound Blocks Heat Shock Protein
Background


X chromosome selection

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Physicist Cracks Women's Random But Always Lucky Choice Of X Chromosome - also here, here
Background


Functional elements of the human genome

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - 'Junk' DNA makes compulsive reading
  2. June 13, 2007 - The 1 Percent Genome Solution
  3. June 13, 2007 - Encyclopedia Of DNA: New Findings Challenge Established Views On Human Genome
  4. June 13, 2007 - Human instruction book not so simple: studies
  5. June 13, 2007 - First pages of regulation
  6. June 14, 2007 - Genes bow out of the limelight
  7. June 14, 2007 - Researchers play leading role in major study of human genome function
  8. June 14, 2007 - Human genome further unravelled
  9. June 20, 2007 - Human Genetic 'Deserts' Are Teeming With Significant Life - also here
Background, Background


Nitrogen and forest CO2 absorption

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Human-spewed nitrogen helps forests absorb carbon
  2. June 14, 2007 - Human Activities Increasing Carbon Sequestration In Forests - also here
  3. June 20, 2007 - Air pollution acting as fertilizer for forests
Background


Plant altruism

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Rooting for the Home Team
  2. June 14, 2007 - Plants Recognize Their Siblings, Biologists Discover - also here
Background


Evolution of altruism

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Competition, Loss Of Selfishness Mark Shift To Supersociety
Background


Neanderthals, language, creativity, and schizophrenia

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Neanderthal brain spared schizophrenia
Background, Background, Background, Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Paying taxes is a pleasurable duty
  2. June 14, 2007 - Brain gets a thrill from charity: study - also here, here
  3. June 14, 2007 - Can't Buy Me Altruism
  4. June 15, 2007 - Charity, Taxes... What's the Diff?
  5. June 15, 2007 - Paying Taxes, According To The Brain, Can Bring Satisfaction
  6. June 15, 2007 - Doing good feels good, study finds
Background


RNA translation

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Scientists Decode RNA Mystery, Will Help Direct Drug Therapies - also here
Background


Protein recycling systems in the cell

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Scientists Link Cell's Protein Recycling Systems
Background


DNA replication

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Important Secret In Gene Replication Uncovered - also here
Background, Background


Speciation

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Color Pattern Spurs Speciation In Tropical Fish
Background


Protein networks and kinases

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Casting the molecular net
Background, Background


Limiting reuse of gene expression coactivators

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - Clocking In And Out Of Gene Expression - also here
Background


Centromeres and chromatin

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - Secrets Of Chromosome Movement Illuminated - also here, here
Background, Background


Evolutionary cost of avoiding predators

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - Study: Avoiding Predators Has Its Price
Background


Fruit fly heterochromatin

References:
  1. June 16, 2007 - Exploring 'Junk DNA' In The Genome - also here
Background



Health and medicine


Stem cells

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Stem cells evade immune system hit - also here
  2. June 11, 2007 - Human stem cells treat Parkinson's in monkeys
  3. June 11, 2007 - Stem cells help primates with Parkinson's
  4. June 14, 2007 - New Scientist queries lead to journal correction
  5. June 15, 2007 - Some Blood Diseases May Stem from Cells' Environment
  6. June 15, 2007 - Scientists Culture Blood-forming Stem Cells From Human Fat Tissue
Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Hypertension drug protects against Parkinson's
  2. June 11, 2007 - Test drug seen as best hope in decades for tackling Parkinson's
  3. June 11, 2007 - Drug offers hope for Parkinson's
  4. June 12, 2007 - Blood Pressure Drug, Stem Cell Transplant Seen as Possible New Parkinson's Treatments
  5. June 12, 2007 - Drug Slows And May Halt Parkinson's Disease - also here
  6. June 14, 2007 - Study of the drug, Isradipine, to determine if it slows or prevents Parkinson's disease
  7. June 15, 2007 - Blood Pressure Drug May Help Stall Parkinson's
  8. June 17, 2007 - Researchers Use 'Genomic Pathway' To Predict Parkinson's
Background


Tuberculosis

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - First "XDR" TB cases found in Myanmar migrants
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - New tests may help predict Alzheimer's: conference
  2. June 11, 2007 - Drugs show small effects in Alzheimer's: research
  3. June 11, 2007 - Unexplained Late-life Weight Loss May Be Early Predictor Of Alzheimer's Disease
  4. June 11, 2007 - Alzheimer's Drugs: a Milky Alternative
  5. June 12, 2007 - Newly Discovered Antibody May Be Body's Natural Defense Against Alzheimer's - also here, here
  6. June 12, 2007 - Research aims at Alzheimer's cause
  7. June 12, 2007 - Worriers risk losing their memory
  8. June 13, 2007 - Early Results From Alzheimer's Neuroimaging Studies Could Speed Research - also here
  9. June 13, 2007 - 'Natural Protection' To Reduce Spread Of Alzheimer's Disease Possible - also here
  10. June 14, 2007 - Mix Of Disease Processes Found In Brains Of Most People With Dementia - also here
  11. June 14, 2007 - 'Tantalizing' finds in cell research
  12. June 15, 2007 - Possible Mechanistic Link Between Stress And The Development Of Alzheimer Tangles - also here, here
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Indonesia finds asymptomatic H5N1-infected poultry
  2. June 11, 2007 - Bird flu symptoms found in Malaysian pair
  3. June 15, 2007 - Vietnam finds bird flu near border with China
  4. June 16, 2007 - First Vietnam bird flu death since 2005 - also here
Background


Exercise and cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Aerobic exercise reverses signs of heart failure
  2. June 12, 2007 - Exercise training helps control blood pressure
  3. June 12, 2007 - Aerobic Exercise Is Best Fitness Program For Patients With Stable Heart Failure - also here
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Diet And Exercise Key To Surviving Breast Cancer, Regardless Of Obesity, Study Suggests - also here
  2. June 11, 2007 - Taking Folic Acid Does Not Reduce Risk Of Precancerous Colon Tumors, Study Suggests - also here
  3. June 11, 2007 - HPV virus linked to breast cancer
  4. June 12, 2007 - Glaxo gets priority review for lung cancer drug
  5. June 12, 2007 - Heavy pesticide exposure linked to brain cancer
  6. June 12, 2007 - Sensitivity To Diverse Range Of Chemotherapeutic Drugs Linked To Common Pathway
  7. June 13, 2007 - Gene mutation slashes prostate cancer survival time
  8. June 13, 2007 - Researchers Shed Light On Mechanism Of Action Used By Anti-cancer Drug - also here, here
  9. June 13, 2007 - BRCA2 Carriers At Increased Risk For Deadly Form Of Prostate Cancer
  10. June 13, 2007 - Tumor Vessels Identified By Unique Molecular Markers - also here
  11. June 13, 2007 - Eating Red Meat Will Not Increase Colorectal Cancer Risk, Study Suggests
  12. June 13, 2007 - Common symptoms could be warning signs of ovarian cancer
  13. June 13, 2007 - Ovarian cancer has early warning signs
  14. June 13, 2007 - Signs of ovarian cancer listed; early check urged
  15. June 14, 2007 - Gene linked to 30 pct of breast cancers: study
  16. June 14, 2007 - Stress linked to lower endometrial cancer risk
  17. June 14, 2007 - Can A Mediterranean Diet Help Prevent Colon Cancer? - also here, here
  18. June 14, 2007 - Rogue Cells Could Cause Spread Of Breast Cancer - also here
  19. June 15, 2007 - First National Consensus On Ovarian Cancer Symptoms Stresses Education For Earlier Diagnosis
  20. June 15, 2007 - Screening Approach Leads To Discovery Of Gene Linked To Breast Cancer - also here
  21. June 15, 2007 - Scientists successfully target tumor microenvironment to stop cancer growth - also here, here
  22. June 15, 2007 - Colon cancer proteins show promise for blood test - also here, here
  23. June 15, 2007 - Pancreatic Cancer Surgery Overlooked
  24. June 17, 2007 - Hormone Therapy Offers New Hope For Ovarian Cancer Patients
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Researchers Find Potential New Target For Type 2 Diabetes
  2. June 12, 2007 - Diabetes Associated With Decreases In Life Expectancy And Number Of Years Free Of Heart Disease
  3. June 13, 2007 - Simple model predicts diabetes in middle-age
  4. June 13, 2007 - Light Activity Can Help Avoid Chronic Disease - also here
  5. June 14, 2007 - Obese young adults face high diabetes risk
  6. June 15, 2007 - Cytokine Resistance Contributes To Pathology Of Type 2 Diabetes - also here, here
  7. June 15, 2007 - Exercise Helps People With Diabetes, Study Says
  8. June 15, 2007 - Dramatic Health Benefits After Just One Exercise Session
  9. June 15, 2007 - Risk Of Stroke Doubles If Diagnosed With Type 2 Diabetes
Background


Rheumatoid arthritis

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - Breakthrough Developments In Rheumatoid Arthritis Reported - also here, here
  2. June 13, 2007 - Disability from long-term rheumatoid arthritis reduced with biologic treatment
  3. June 15, 2007 - Improvement Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Found During Pregnancy
  4. June 16, 2007 - New Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment Effective, Study Suggests - also here
  5. June 16, 2007 - Longer Term Breast Feeding Protects Mother From Risk Of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis - also here
Background


Pistachios and cholesterol

References:
  1. June 11, 2007 - A daily dose of pistachios offers potential heart health benefits - also here
Background


Stem cells and cancer

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Cancer Stem Cells Can Go It Alone - also here
  2. June 17, 2007 - Cancer Stem Cells Similar To Normal Stem Cells Can Thwart Anti-cancer Agents - also here, here
Background, Background


Celiac disease

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Identification Of Genetic Risk Factor For Celiac Disease Promises Improved Treatment - also here
Background


Autism

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Structure Of Protein Altered In Autism - also here
Background


Stem cells and Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. June 12, 2007 - Stem cell first for Parkinson's
  2. June 13, 2007 - Neural Stem Cells Reduce Parkinson's Symptoms In Monkeys - also here, here
Background, Background


Heart disease 'obesity paradox'

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - "Obesity paradox" seen in range of heart ills - also here
  2. June 22, 2007 - Obese Heart Attack Patients Are More Likely To Survive After Treatment Than Normal Weight Patients - also here
  3. June 29, 2007 - Being heavy may be protective in heart disease - also here
  4. July 9, 2007 - Obese Survive Heart Attacks Better - also here
Background, Background


Hypertension

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Study ties childhood growth to adulthood blood pressure
  2. June 13, 2007 - Link Between Common Sleep Disorder And High Blood Pressure Discovered - also here, here
  3. June 14, 2007 - Release of new guidelines on the management of arterial hypertension
Background


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Low Potassium Levels Linked To Increased Long-Term Mortality In Heart Failure Patients
  2. June 13, 2007 - Chronic Sleep Restriction Negatively Affects Cardiac Activity
  3. June 13, 2007 - Lack of sleep increases risk of cardiovascular disease
Background


Atherosclerosis

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - High cholesterol diets modify gene expression in atherosclerosis
Background


Anti-obesity drugs

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Panel rejects Sanofi obesity drug
  2. June 14, 2007 - Does Orlistat, OTC Diet Pill Alli, Live Up To Its Name? - also here
  3. June 14, 2007 - F.D.A. Panel Rejects Drug for Obesity
Background


Carotenoids and testosterone

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Eating Your Veggies May Provide Additional Health Benefits - also here
Background


Cancer vaccines

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Progress Toward An Antitumor Vaccine - also here
Background, Background


Sleep deprivation

References:
  1. June 13, 2007 - Sleep Problems May Affect A Person's Diet - also here
  2. June 13, 2007 - Chronic Sleep Restriction Negatively Affects Cardiac Activity - also here
  3. June 14, 2007 - Reduced Sleep Quality Can Aggravate Pre-existing Psychological Conditions - also here
Background


Multiple sclerosis

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Protein's Role In Multiple Sclerosis Clarified - also here
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Genes In Human Inner Ear Cells Restored - also here
Background


Histone deacetylase inhibitor therapeutics

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Future Therapies For Stroke May Block Cell Death - also here
Background


Nanoparticle drug delivery

References:
  1. June 14, 2007 - Double-Duty Nanoparticles Overcome Drug Resistance in Tumors
  2. June 15, 2007 - Bacteria Ferry Nanoparticles Into Cells For Early Diagnosis, Treatment - also here, here
Background, Background


Mucosal surface immune function

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - Mucosal-surface Immune Function Discoveries Could Boost Vaccine Research - also here
Background


Coffee and cholesterol

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - How Coffee Raises Cholesterol
Background


Herpes virus use of DNA repair process

References:
  1. June 15, 2007 - Herpes Virus Hijacks DNA Repair Process
Background


Staphylococcus aureus infection

References:
  1. June 16, 2007 - Bacteria Can Hide Out In Cells For Weeks
Background, Background


Mathematical model of sepsis

References:
  1. June 17, 2007 - New Sepsis Model May Help Shape Patient Care
Background, Background


AIDS

References:
  1. June 17, 2007 - Ultra Deep Sequencing Identifies HIV Drug Resistance At Early Stage - also here
Background


Copyright © 2007 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved