Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 6, Number 37
September 10, 2007

Physical sciences and technology

Archaean oxygen
Nanotechnology
Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Stellar evolution
Carbon nanotubes
Single-photon transistor
Beyond Einstein projects
Planetary system formation
KT mass extinction
Global warming
Superconductors
Very early low mass galaxies
Entanglement of atoms
Distribution of star formation in galaxies
Quantum dots
Metamaterials
Controlled fusion

Life sciences

Perceptual narrowing
Human genome variability
Genetics of height
Adipose gene
Speciation
Memory enhancing drugs
Predator-prey dynamics
Drug synthesis
Ribosomal RNA
Neural correlates of memory
Muscle cell films
Cognitive skills of chimps and toddlers
Non-necessity of ultraconserved DNA sequences
Methylation of P53
Histone codes
Synthetic biology
Plasticity in the visual cortex
Microfluidic technology for growing neurons
Evolution of genomic imprinting
Rational action perception in primates
Memory network limits
Evolution of social insects
Polyandry as a survival strategy
Clostridium difficile toxin production
Gene transfer
RNA polymerase and P53
Timing of brain encoding of visual information

Health and medicine

Cardiovascular disease
Cancer
Schizophrenia
Appetite control
Avian flu
Stem cells
Leucine and wasteful protein turnover
MicroRNA and Parkinson's disease
Drug delivery
Bacteria phages as antibacterials
Anti-obesity satiogenic peptide hormone
Diabetes
Metabolic syndrome
Depression
Gene therapy
Genetic factor in autoimmune disease
Malaria
Hepatitis C
Alzheimer's disease
Inflammation and joint injury
Alteration of gene expression by drug addiction
AIDS
Antibiotics
Autism
Health benefits of fruit juices
Microarray test for antibiotic resistant bacteria
Stress, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease
Rheumatoid arthritis
Regulatory T cell therapy for leukemia
Bipolar disorder
Gene therapy for cancer



Physical sciences and technology


Archaean oxygen

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Volcanoes Key To Earth's Oxygen Atmosphere
Background


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Bundles of cysteine-lead nanowires spread into highly oriented structures
  2. September 4, 2007 - New nanotechnique producing small things in large quantities
  3. September 5, 2007 - Blending DNA and Nanotechnology
  4. September 6, 2007 - Molecules autonomously propelled by polymerizing DNA strands
Background


Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Cosmic Cockroaches
Background


Stellar evolution

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - 'One Of The Most Curious Objects In The Sky' Delights Astronomers Again
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Tiny Carbon Nanotubes Show Big Germ-fighting Potential - also here
  2. September 5, 2007 - Two Nanostructures Are Better Than One - also here
Background


Single-photon transistor

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Single-photon transistor plans unveiled
Background, Background


Beyond Einstein projects

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - 'Beyond Einstein' Research Should Begin with Mission to Study Dark Energy - also here, here
  2. September 5, 2007 - Joint Dark Energy Mission a Top Priority for NASA, Says NRC - also here
  3. September 5, 2007 - Panel Urges NASA to Study Dark Energy
  4. September 5, 2007 - Dark energy probe gets high praise
  5. September 6, 2007 - UC Berkeley team to compete for NASA's Beyond Einstein mission
Background, Background


Planetary system formation

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Turbulence Key to Planet Formation, New Study Suggests
Background


KT mass extinction

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Discovered: The asteroid that killed off the dinosaurs
  2. September 5, 2007 - Asteroid Smashup May Have Wiped Out the Dinosaurs
  3. September 5, 2007 - Far-Flung Crash May Have Created Dino-Killer Asteroid
  4. September 5, 2007 - Distant space collision meant doom for dinosaurs - also here
  5. September 5, 2007 - Space pile-up 'condemned dinos'
  6. September 5, 2007 - Asteroids Smash, Dinosaurs Duck
  7. September 5, 2007 - Dinosaur extinction linked to colliding asteroids
  8. September 6, 2007 - Distant space crash doomed the dinosaurs - also here
  9. September 6, 2007 - New research reveals a large asteroid breakup to be the likely source of the impactor that caused a mass extinction event on Earth 65 million years ago - also here, here, here
  10. September 6, 2007 - Scientists say they know where dinosaur-killing asteroid came from
  11. September 6, 2007 - Astronomers Solve Asteroid Mystery
  12. September 6, 2007 - How cosmic billiards doomed the dinosaurs
  13. September 6, 2007 - Dino-killing asteroid traced back 160m years
  14. September 6, 2007 - Far-flung asteroid crash doomed the dinosaurs
  15. September 6, 2007 - Asteroid Belt Collision Likely Led to Dinosaurs' Death
  16. September 6, 2007 - How asteroid spelt doom for the dinosaurs
  17. September 6, 2007 - Asteroid Crash that Killed the Dinos
  18. September 6, 2007 - How clash of space titans put an end to dinosaurs
  19. September 6, 2007 - Asteroid that wiped out dinosaurs traced
  20. September 8, 2007 - Dino demise traces to asteroid-family breakup
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Ice-free Arctic could be here in 23 years
  2. September 6, 2007 - Arctic Regional Sea Ice to Decline 40 Percent before 2050
  3. September 6, 2007 - NOAA Affirms Predictions of Sea Ice Loss - also here, here
  4. September 7, 2007 - Arctic ice cap to melt faster than feared, scientists say
  5. September 7, 2007 - NOAA Scientists Say Arctic Ice Is Melting Faster Than Expected
  6. September 7, 2007 - Dwindling Days for Arctic Ice
Background


Superconductors

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Towards commercialization of high-temperature superconductors
Background


Very early low mass galaxies

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Tiny Galactic Building Blocks Spotted
  2. September 7, 2007 - 'Lego-block' Galaxies Discovered In Early Universe - also here, here
Background


Entanglement of atoms

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Single-atom entanglement goes further
  2. September 7, 2007 - Physicists Establish 'Spooky' Quantum Communication - also here, here
Background


Distribution of star formation in galaxies

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Akari's observations of galaxy M101
Background


Quantum dots

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Acoustic Quantum Dots
Background


Metamaterials

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Ideal materials make for perfect invisibility
Background


Controlled fusion

References:
  1. September 9, 2007 - Nuclear fusion project gets the green light
Background



Life sciences


Perceptual narrowing

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Ability To 'Tell The Difference' Declines As Infants Age
Background


Human genome variability

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Study: Humans' DNA Not Quite So Similar - also here, here
  2. September 4, 2007 - One man's genes show DNA is still a mystery - also here, here
  3. September 4, 2007 - First Diploid Human Genome Sequence Shows We're Surprisingly Different
  4. September 4, 2007 - How to Build a Craig Venter
  5. September 4, 2007 - First individual person's genome decoded
  6. September 4, 2007 - In the Genome Race, the Sequel Is Personal
  7. September 4, 2007 - One Man's DNA Shows We're Less Alike Than We Thought
Background


Genetics of height

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Tall and lanky? Blame your genes
Background


Adipose gene

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - "Skinny" gene keeps mice lean: study - also here
  2. September 4, 2007 - Gene 'controls body fat levels'
  3. September 5, 2007 - Anti-obesity Gene Keeps Mice And Worms Lean - also here
  4. September 5, 2007 - 'Skinny Gene' Exists - also here
Background


Speciation

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Auto Immune Response Creates Barrier To Fertility; Could Be A Step In Speciation - also here
  2. September 7, 2007 - New Species May Form WIth A Little Help From Immune System
Background


Memory enhancing drugs

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Memory Enhancement Drugs Show Promise But Face Growing Scrutiny
Background


Predator-prey dynamics

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Hidden interactions between predators and prey: evolution causes cryptic dynamics in ecology
Background


Drug synthesis

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Simple Method To Create Natural Drug Products Developed - also here
Background


Ribosomal RNA

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - New Mechanism In Development Of Severe Inherited Disease Discovered
Background


Neural correlates of memory

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Specific Neurons Involved In Memory Formation Identified
  2. September 6, 2007 - Specific brain protein required for nerve cell connections to form and function - also here, here
Background


Muscle cell films

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - 'Muscular films' promise bodyparts and biomachines
  2. September 6, 2007 - Thin Films Pump Up
  3. September 6, 2007 - Mini-muscles go for a swim
Background


Cognitive skills of chimps and toddlers

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Kids smarter than apes -- sometimes, anyway - also here
  2. September 6, 2007 - Do Social Smarts Set Us Apart?
  3. September 7, 2007 - Human Toddlers Trump Apes on Social Skills
  4. September 7, 2007 - Higher Social Skills Are Distinctly Human, Toddler And Ape Study Reveals
  5. September 7, 2007 - Toddlers outdo chimps at apeing the grown-ups
Background


Non-necessity of ultraconserved DNA sequences

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Mice Thrive Missing Ancient DNA Sequences - also here, here
Background


Methylation of P53

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Regulation Of Vital Tumor Suppressor Gene P53 Detailed - also here
Background, Background


Histone codes

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Core tenets of the 'histone code' are universal
Background


Synthetic biology

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Scientists a step nearer to creating artificial life
Background


Plasticity in the visual cortex

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Adult Brain Can Still Change
  2. September 7, 2007 - Reorganization Of Brain Area For Vision After Stroke: May Yield New Treatments For Brain Injury - also here
  3. September 9, 2007 - Adult Brain Can Change, Study Confirms - also here, here
Background


Microfluidic technology for growing neurons

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Microfluidic Chambers Advance The Science Of Growing Neurons
Background


Evolution of genomic imprinting

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Evolution of genomic imprinting
Background


Rational action perception in primates

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Primates expect others to act rationally - also here, here
Background


Memory network limits

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - A balanced memory network - also here, here
Background


Evolution of social insects

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Old developmental pathways spawn revolutionary evolutionary changes
Background


Polyandry as a survival strategy

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Females promiscuous for the good of their grandchildren - also here
Background


Clostridium difficile toxin production

References:
  1. September 8, 2007 - Curbing C. Difficile's Toxin Production - also here
Background


Gene transfer

References:
  1. September 8, 2007 - Parasitic Battles Can Involve Gene Transfer That Aids Evolution - also here
Background


RNA polymerase and P53

References:
  1. September 9, 2007 - New View Of DNA Repair: Enzyme Alerts Cell's Powerful Army To Repair DNA Damage - also here
Background


Timing of brain encoding of visual information

References:
  1. September 9, 2007 - Brain's Timing Linked With Timescales Of The Natural Visual World - also here, here
Background



Health and medicine


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Men and women may need different heart treatments - also here
  2. September 5, 2007 - Pfizer study shows risk of cholesterol pill switch - also here
  3. September 6, 2007 - Tooth loss linked to higher heart disease risk - also here
  4. September 6, 2007 - Heavy Drinking Raises Blood Pressure In Older Men Regardless Of 'Good' Cholesterol
  5. September 6, 2007 - Women May Need Different Heart Treatment - also here, here
  6. September 6, 2007 - Early rising no good for the heart: study - also here, here
  7. September 7, 2007 - Sudden heart attack rare in adolescents - also here
  8. September 7, 2007 - Screening family members could prevent 4 in 10 premature heart attacks - also here
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Death triggered in cancer-prone intestinal cells - also here
  2. September 3, 2007 - Birth weight tied to testicular cancer risk - also here
  3. September 3, 2007 - Molecular Pathway May Predict Chemotherapy Effectiveness
  4. September 4, 2007 - Sanofi announces positive results in Taxotere trials
  5. September 4, 2007 - Knee Arthritis Linked To Lung Cancer - also here
  6. September 5, 2007 - More vitamin D could mean fewer cancers: study - also here
  7. September 5, 2007 - Factors That Accelerate Resistance To Targeted Therapy In Lymphoblastic Leukemia Found
  8. September 5, 2007 - New Technique Detects Specific Chromosomal Damage, May Indicate Lung Cancer Risk
  9. September 5, 2007 - Avocados May Help Prevent Oral Cancer, Study Shows - also here, here
  10. September 5, 2007 - Cancer Can Be Detected By Scanning Surface Veins - also here, here
  11. September 5, 2007 - Once Ocular Melanoma Has Spread, New Drug Combination May Help - also here, here
  12. September 6, 2007 - Study confirms breast cancer worse in U.S. blacks - also here
  13. September 6, 2007 - Presence Of Gene Mutation Helps Guide Thyroid Cancer Treatment - also here, here
  14. September 6, 2007 - Breast Cancer More Deadly in Black Women - also here, here, here, here, here
  15. September 7, 2007 - Racial differences in kidney cancer care, outcome - also here
  16. September 7, 2007 - New 'Knock-out' Gene Model Provides Molecular Clues To Breast Cancer - also here, here
  17. September 7, 2007 - Anti-cancer Drug Effective In Mouse Model Going To Clinical Trials
  18. September 7, 2007 - Microarray provides 3 genomic guides to breast cancer treatment decisions - also here
  19. September 8, 2007 - Frequent Alcohol Consumption Increases Cancer Risk In Older Women - also here, here
  20. September 13, 2007 - Black Women More Likely To Have More Aggressive, Less Treatable Form Of Breast Cancer
Background


Schizophrenia

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Experimental Lilly drug may help schizophrenia - also here
  2. September 4, 2007 - Schizophrenia Treatment Without Side Effects?
  3. September 5, 2007 - Schizophrenia genes 'favoured by evolution'
  4. September 6, 2007 - It's No Delusion: Evolution May Favor Schizophrenia Genes
  5. September 7, 2007 - Genes Associated With Schizophrenia Evolved Rapidly Due To Selection During Human Evolution - also here
  6. September 7, 2007 - Schizophrenia-linked Gene Keeps New Adult Brain Cells Under Control - also here
  7. September 11, 2007 - What The Schizophrenia Risk Gene Does For A Healthy Brain
Background


Appetite control

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - ADHD drug cuts adults' calorie, fat intake - also here
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Indonesia dismisses human-to-human bird flu report - also here
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. September 3, 2007 - Surgeons using tissue to mend broken hearts
  2. September 5, 2007 - Human Source Of Stem Cells With Potential To Repair Muscle Identified - also here
  3. September 7, 2007 - Embryonic Stem Cells Used To Grow Cartilage - also here, here
  4. September 9, 2007 - Researcher identifies stem cells in tendons that regenerate tissue in animal model - also here, here
Background


Leucine and wasteful protein turnover

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Futile protein cycle keeps mice thin
  2. September 5, 2007 - Burning Extra Calories With A 'Futile Protein Cycle'
Background


MicroRNA and Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Tiny RNA Snippet May Play a Role in Parkinson's
Background, Background


Drug delivery

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Toward Improved Drug-delivery: Coating Gives Nanowires Easy Access To Cells
Background


Bacteria phages as antibacterials

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - New Viruses To Treat Bacterial Diseases: 'My Enemies' Enemy Is My Friend' - also here
Background


Anti-obesity satiogenic peptide hormone

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Diabetes drug promising as aid to weight loss - also here
Background


Diabetes

References:
  1. September 4, 2007 - Onset Of Diabetes Higher In Patients Who Have Had Heart Attacks
  2. September 5, 2007 - Failed AtheroGenics drug has small diabetes effect
  3. September 5, 2007 - New Imaging Technique Reveals Fatty Hearts In Pre-diabetics - also here
  4. September 6, 2007 - Drug combo works synergistically in type 2 diabetes - also here
  5. September 6, 2007 - Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin Resistance - also here, here
  6. September 6, 2007 - Discovery May Pave The Way For A New Class Of Diabetes Drugs
  7. September 6, 2007 - Right breakfast bread keeps blood sugar in check all day - also here
  8. September 6, 2007 - Hemoglobin A1c can predict type 2 diabetes in women
  9. September 7, 2007 - How Insulin Secreting Cells Maintain Their Glucose Sensitivity - also here, here
  10. September 7, 2007 - Blood Pressure Drugs Cut Death Rate In Type 2 Diabetes
  11. September 7, 2007 - Glowing Mice Light The Way To Understanding Type 2 Diabetes - also here
  12. September 7, 2007 - Immunosuppressive Drugs Are A Double-edged Sword To Type 1 Diabetics
Background


Metabolic syndrome

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Sleep apnea linked to metabolic syndrome in teens - also here
Background


Depression

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Study promises faster-acting anti-depressants
  2. September 5, 2007 - Speedy drugs for depression
  3. September 7, 2007 - Depression more damaging than some chronic illnesses - also here
  4. September 7, 2007 - Depression leads to worst health
  5. September 11, 2007 - A Faster Class Of Antidepressants
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Gene therapy promising against arthritis - also here
  2. September 7, 2007 - Polymers hold promise for safer gene delivery
Background


Genetic factor in autoimmune disease

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Two new genes found for rheumatoid arthritis - also here
  2. September 6, 2007 - Genetic Risk Factor For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus Identified - also here, here
  3. September 7, 2007 - Genes Involved In Rheumatoid Arthritis Identified - also here
Background


Malaria

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Investigating The Evolution Of Drug Resistance In Malaria Parasites
Background


Hepatitis C

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Who Will Recover Spontaneously From Hepatitis C Virus Infection?
  2. September 6, 2007 - Possible Hepatitis C Vaccine - also here, here, here
Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Alzheimer's And Mild Cognitive Impairment Linked To Low Level Of Neuronal Receptor - also here, here
  2. September 6, 2007 - Silent Seizures May Cause Alzheimer's Dementia
  3. September 6, 2007 - Smokers Are More Likely To Develop Dementia - also here, here
  4. September 6, 2007 - Scientists uncover potential mechanism of memory loss in Alzheimer's disease - also here
  5. September 9, 2007 - Mice With Alzheimer's Disease Suffer 'Silent' Seizures
Background


Inflammation and joint injury

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - New Insights Into Common Knee Injuries
Background


Alteration of gene expression by drug addiction

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - Research elucidates mechanism by which gene expression may be altered in drug addiction - also here
Background, Background


AIDS

References:
  1. September 5, 2007 - FDA panel recommends approval of Merck AIDS drug
  2. September 7, 2007 - How Antibodies Fight HIV: New Evidence - also here
  3. September 7, 2007 - SIV infection of natural hosts provides new insights into HIV disease complexity - also here
Background


Antibiotics

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Radicals unite antibiotics
  2. September 7, 2007 - New insight into how antibiotics kill might make them deadlier
  3. September 7, 2007 - Biomedical engineers find chink in bacteria's armor - also here, here
Background


Autism

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Mutation Gives Mice Autistic Symptoms
  2. September 7, 2007 - Researchers develop mouse model of autism spectrum disorders - also here
  3. September 7, 2007 - Researchers create mice models with autism
  4. September 8, 2007 - 'Rain Man' Mice Provide Model For Autism - also here
Background


Health benefits of fruit juices

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - The Power Of Fruit Juice
Background


Microarray test for antibiotic resistant bacteria

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Quick Microchip Test For Dangerous Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - also here
Background, Background


Stress, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. September 6, 2007 - Environmental stress probed in cardiovascular disease, diabetes - also here
Background, Background


Rheumatoid arthritis

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - Mediterranean diet may benefit arthritis sufferers - also here
Background


Regulatory T cell therapy for leukemia

References:
  1. September 7, 2007 - First Clinical Trial Using T-reg Cells From Cord Blood In Leukemia Treatment In US Begins - also here
Background, Background


Bipolar disorder

References:
  1. September 8, 2007 - Bipolar Express: Mental Ailment Expands Rapidly Among Youth
Background


Gene therapy for cancer

References:
  1. September 9, 2007 - Bacteria Successful In Cancer Treatment
Background, Background


Copyright © 2007 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved