Open Questions Chronicle

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Volume 6, Number 49
December 3, 2007

Physical sciences and technology

Nanotechnology
Carbon nanotubes
Permian-Triassic mass extinction
Bose-Einstein condensates
Milky Way
Robotics
Fullerenes
Early galaxies
Dark energy
Neutron stars
Quasistars
Planetary system formation
Fuel cells
Astrochemistry
Extrasolar planets
Magnetic digital storage
Star formation
Lepton-flavor-violating processes
Dark matter in galaxies
Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory
Global warming

Life sciences

Development of motor neurons
Brain-imaging studies
Nuclear pore complex
P53 and fertility
Cancer biology
RNA polymerase
Nucleosome mapping
Intelligence genes
Paranthropus robustus
Nerve function protein
New form of cell death
Canine cognition
Aging-related changes in gene expression
Induced pluripotent stem cells
Human imprinted genes
Speciation
Klotho, insulin, and aging
Crossovers, double-stranded DNA breaks, and telomeres
Inflammation pathways
Small RNA in bacteria
MicroRNA and cancer
Cell membrane transport proteins
Microtubule growth

Health and medicine

Diabetes
Diabetes and heart cell metabolism
Alzheimer's disease
Cardiovascular disease
Gene therapy
Cancer
Parkinson's disease
Nanoparticle drug delivery for cancer
Malaria
Stem cells
Autism
Lupus
Ulcerative colitis
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Prediction of drug side-effects
Sirtuin-targeted diabetes drug
Inflammation and exercise
Avian flu
Hepatitis C
Autoimmune diseases
Skin aging
Cannabinoids
Folate and vitamin B12
Antioxidants
AIDS
Prions



Physical sciences and technology


Nanotechnology

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Carbon nanotubes to be replaced by MoSIx nanowires in high-tech devices says new study
  2. November 26, 2007 - Nanoswitches Toggled by Light
  3. November 26, 2007 - Nanodevices could use quantized current to operate future electronics
  4. November 27, 2007 - 'High Q' NIST Nanowires May be Practical Oscillators - also here, here, here, here
  5. November 27, 2007 - Tiny fridge thinks it's a motor
Background


Carbon nanotubes

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Growing tiny carbon nanotube wires to connect computer chips of the future
  2. November 26, 2007 - Another type of nanotube, a how-to guide to making bamboo-structured carbon nanotubes
  3. November 26, 2007 - Big screen TVs, flexible electronics and surfboards made from same new material
  4. November 26, 2007 - Improved wettability of carbon nanotubes opens the door to new possibilities
  5. November 26, 2007 - Understanding of actuator properties of carbon nanotubes bring micro machines closer
  6. November 26, 2007 - New Flexible, Transparent Transistors made of Nanotubes
Background


Permian-Triassic mass extinction

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Toxic Deep-Ocean Water Triggered "Great Dying"
Background


Bose-Einstein condensates

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - NIST Announces First Observation of 'Persistent Flow' in a Gas - also here, here, here, here
  2. December 21, 2007 - A Persisten Flow of Bose-Condensed Atoms in a Toroidal Trap
Background, Background


Milky Way

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - Star cluster's extreme speed puzzles astronomers
Background


Robotics

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - Japanese robot gets more life-like
  2. November 29, 2007 - Androids in pain and breast-feeding baby bots
  3. November 29, 2007 - Robots Dazzle at Japanese Exhibit - also here, here, here
Background


Fullerenes

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - High Performance Field-effect Transistors With Thin Films Of Carbon 60 Produced - also here
  2. November 30, 2007 - String Of Fullerene Pearls - also here
Background


Early galaxies

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Faint galaxies spotted in the early universe
  2. November 28, 2007 - Proto-galaxies tip cold dark matter
  3. November 28, 2007 - A Long, Hard Look at the Early Universe
  4. November 28, 2007 - Discovering Teenage Galaxies - also here, here
  5. November 28, 2007 - Discovering Teenage Galaxies Billions Of Light Years Away
  6. November 28, 2007 - Sighting of 'teenage' galaxies gives scientists stellar return
  7. November 28, 2007 - New population of faint protogalaxies discovered - also here
  8. November 28, 2007 - "Teenage" galaxies give hints of early Milky Way
  9. November 28, 2007 - Teen galaxies hint of early Milky Way
  10. November 29, 2007 - Scientists Discover 'Teenager Galaxies' - also here
Background


Dark energy

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Dark Energy May Be Consistent With Cosmological Constant - also here, here
Background


Neutron stars

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Speeding Star to Escape from Milky Way
  2. November 28, 2007 - Starry Cannonball Shooting out Of Milky Way at 3 Million Mph
  3. November 29, 2007 - Chandra discovers cosmic cannonball - also here, here, here
Background


Quasistars

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Biggest black holes may grow inside 'quasistars'
Background


Planetary system formation

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Million-degree galactic gas 'bubbles' found
  2. November 29, 2007 - Huge Stars Seen as Source of Glowing Gas
  3. November 30, 2007 - Astronomers Find Stellar Cradle Where Planets Form - also here
  4. November 30, 2007 - An X-Ray Santa Claus in Orion
  5. December 2, 2007 - Huge Cloud Of High Temperature Gas Found In Orion Nebula
Background


Fuel cells

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - New Fuel Cell Powered With Glucose From Biomass
  2. November 29, 2007 - Improving Fuel Cell Durability: Research into Better Fuel Cell Materials and Designs Starts with Studying Failures - also here
Background


Astrochemistry

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Organic 'Building Blocks' Of Life Discovered In Titan's Atmosphere
  2. November 29, 2007 - New 'Organic Building Blocks' Found In Titan's Atmosphere
Background


Extrasolar planets

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Astronomers Discover Youngest Solar Systems Ever - also here, here
  2. November 29, 2007 - Planet Formation is Child's Play
Background


Magnetic digital storage

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Blue Dye Could Hold The Key To Super Processing Power - also here, here, here
Background


Star formation

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Embryonic Star Captured With Jets Flaring
Background


Lepton-flavor-violating processes

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - A Particle of a Different Flavor?
Background


Dark matter in galaxies

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Galaxies Are Born Of Violence Between Dark Matter and Interstellar Gas - also here, here
  2. December 3, 2007 - Invisible Matter Loses Cosmic Battle
Background, Background


Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - NEC Develops World's Fastest SRAM-Compatible MRAM With Operation Speed of 250MHz
Background


Global warming

References:
  1. December 1, 2007 - North American Terrain Absorbs Carbon Dioxide Too Slowly
  2. December 2, 2007 - Earth's Tropics Belt Expands - also here, here, here
  3. December 3, 2007 - Tropics on the Move
  4. December 4, 2007 - 'Tropics expand' as world warms
Background



Life sciences


Development of motor neurons

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Key Nerve Navigation Pathway Identified
Background, Background


Brain-imaging studies

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Brain scans 'may detect OCD risk'
  2. November 27, 2007 - How The Brain Controls What The Eyes See
  3. November 27, 2007 - Recreating the World Inside Your Head
  4. November 30, 2007 - How fMRI And Neural Signals Develop In Young Animals - also here
  5. December 2, 2007 - Brain Patterns Of Former Anorexics Reveal Clues To Disorder's Lasting Impact - also here
  6. December 2, 2007 - Anorexia visible with brain scans
Background


Nuclear pore complex

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - Door opened to nuclear portals
Background


P53 and fertility

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Cancer Fighter May Be Fertility Helper
  2. November 28, 2007 - Cancer drug could help infertility
  3. November 30, 2007 - Maternal role for p53 in reproduction
Background


Cancer biology

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Cancer-resistant Mouse Developed By Adding Tumor-suppressor Gene - also here
  2. December 2, 2007 - Cancer cells softer than healthy cells: study
  3. December 2, 2007 - Nanotech researchers discover cancer cells 'feel' much softer than normal cells - also here, here
  4. December 2, 2007 - DNA Methylation Shown To Promote Development Of Colon Tumors - also here
  5. December 3, 2007 - Cancer test finds squidgy cells
  6. December 3, 2007 - Nano cancer detection
Background


RNA polymerase

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Enzyme Mutation Disrupts Organ Growth - also here, here
Background


Nucleosome mapping

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Scientists Map Nucleosomes In Yeast Genome - also here, here
Background


Intelligence genes

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - 'Intelligence genes' proving hard to find: study
Background


Paranthropus robustus

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Male ancestor was slow to grow up
  2. November 30, 2007 - Male ancestors took long road to manhood
  3. November 30, 2007 - How Our Ancestors Were Like Gorillas - also here
Background


Nerve function protein

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Sticky molecule may hold key to nerve disorders
  2. November 30, 2007 - Vascular Biologists Make A Significant Discovery In Neurobiology - also here
Background


New form of cell death

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - New Form of Cell Death Discovered
  2. November 29, 2007 - Homeless cells find temporary lodging -- and their demise - also here
Background


Canine cognition

References:
  1. November 29, 2006 - Dogs Can Classify Complex Photos In Categories Like Humans Do - also here, here
  2. December 5, 2007 - Why Fido is a happy snapper
  3. December 6, 2007 - Picture-sorting dogs show human-like thought
Background


Aging-related changes in gene expression

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - A molecular map for aging in mice
Background


Induced pluripotent stem cells

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Stem Cells - This Time without the Cancer
  2. November 30, 2007 - Stem cell innovators find a way to cut out cancer
  3. December 2, 2007 - Germinal cells can become embryonic stemcells: study - also here, here
  4. December 5, 2007 - Safer way to make human stem-like cells revealed
Background


Human imprinted genes

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Rule-Breaker Genes Identified
  2. November 30, 2007 - Human Genome Has Four Times More Imprinted Genes Than Previously Identified - also here
  3. November 30, 2007 - Scientists Map 'Silenced Genes' - also here, here, here
Background


Speciation

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Female Fickleness May Split a Species
Background


Klotho, insulin, and aging

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Insulin Regulates The Secretion Of The Anti-aging Hormome Klotho - also here
Background, Background


Crossovers, double-stranded DNA breaks, and telomeres

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Hotspots found for chromosome gene swapping - also here, here
Background


Inflammation pathways

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Researchers develop powerful tool to study the genetics of inflammation - also here
Background


Small RNA in bacteria

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Small RNA plays parallel roles in bacterial metabolism - also here
Background, Background


MicroRNA and cancer

References:
  1. December 1, 2007 - Cellular Pathway Identified That Makes Prostate Cancer Fatal - also here
Background, Background


Cell membrane transport proteins

References:
  1. December 1, 2007 - Snapshot Clarifies How Materials Enter Cells - also here
Background


Microtubule growth

References:
  1. December 2, 2007 - Molecular Mechanism Discovered That Plays A Key Role In Giving A Cell Its Shape
Background



Health and medicine


Diabetes

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Starches raise diabetes risk in blacks and Chinese
  2. November 27, 2007 - High glycemic index diet may boost diabetes risk
  3. November 27, 2007 - High-glycemic Index Carbohydrates Associated With Risk For Developing Type 2 Diabetes In Women - also here, here
  4. November 28, 2007 - Novel Pathway That Increases Inflammation In Diabetes Patients Discovered - also here, here
  5. November 29, 2007 - Transporters may help delay diabetes-related retinal damage
  6. December 2, 2007 - Insufficient Sleep Raises Risk Of Diabetes, Study Suggests
Background


Diabetes and heart cell metabolism

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Diabetic Hearts Feel The Burn
Background, Background


Alzheimer's disease

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Alzheimer drugs don't delay dementia onset: study
  2. November 26, 2007 - Low B12 tied to faster mental decline with age
  3. November 27, 2007 - Alzheimer's and high blood pressure linked in study
  4. November 27, 2007 - Drugs May Not Delay Onset Of Dementia - also here, here
  5. November 28, 2007 - Effects Of Progesterone On Alzheimer's Disease - also here, here
  6. November 29, 2007 - Alzheimer's Treatment: 'Cocktail' Of Compounds Improves Brain Function In Rodents - also here
  7. November 29, 2007 - High Blood Pressure May Heighten Effects Of Alzheimer's Disease - also here
Background


Cardiovascular disease

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Cholesterol disturbances impair stroke recovery
  2. November 26, 2007 - Not Enough 'Good' Cholesterol Makes It Harder To Recover From Stroke - also here, here
  3. November 26, 2007 - Vitamin B12 Derivative Could Potentially Be Used To Treat Hypertension And Heart Disease - also here
  4. November 27, 2007 - Wine may calm inflammation in blood vessels
  5. November 29, 2007 - Cholesterol seen tied to heart disease, not stroke
  6. November 29, 2007 - Higher cholesterol raises risk of fatal heart attacks
  7. November 30, 2007 - New Heart Test To Save Time, Money And Lives - also here
  8. November 30, 2007 - Certain Infusion Therapy After Heart Attack Does Not Appear To Be Beneficial, May Cause Harm
  9. November 30, 2007 - Landmark Heart Study Expands to Genetics - also here
Background


Gene therapy

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Gene Therapy Did Not Kill Patient, Study Finds
  2. November 26, 2007 - Gene Therapy Study Is Allowed to Resume
  3. November 27, 2007 - Gene therapy trial to restart
Background


Cancer

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - City-dwelling Women At Greater Risk For Breast Cancer - also here
  2. November 26, 2007 - Marijuana Compound Shows Promise In Fighting Breast Cancer
  3. November 26, 2007 - Cancer Center part of major phase III study for myeloma
  4. November 26, 2007 - How can we know early who will benefit from tumor target therapy?
  5. November 26, 2007 - Oral Drug Sets a New Survival Standard for Bone Marrow Cancer
  6. November 26, 2007 - Massive necrosis after trans-catheter treatment is more common in the presence of tumor capsule
  7. November 27, 2007 - BRCA genes raise breast cancer risk for men too
  8. November 27, 2007 - PET scans can help lung cancer diagnosis: study
  9. November 27, 2007 - 'Mismatched' Prostate Cancer Treatment More Common Than Expected - also here, here
  10. November 27, 2007 - Clinical program to improve early-stage lung cancer detection
  11. November 27, 2007 - Better Detection of Thyroid Cancer
  12. November 28, 2007 - Blood-vessel Blocker Aids Cancer-killing Virus - also here, here
  13. November 28, 2007 - High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth
  14. November 28, 2007 - PET Imaging May Improve Lung Cancer Diagnosis
  15. November 28, 2007 - PET imaging significantly enhances standard imaging in lung cancer staging
  16. November 28, 2007 - Freezing Bone Cancer Tumors Reduces Pain, Study Shows - also here
  17. November 28, 2007 - 'Supermouse' bred to beat cancer
  18. November 29, 2007 - 3-D mammography cuts false-positive rates by half
  19. November 29, 2007 - African-American Men Face Disadvantages Versus Caucasian Men In Prostate Cancer Survival
  20. November 29, 2007 - Biological markers of prostate cancer shed light on cancer burden faced by African-American men - also here
  21. November 29, 2007 - Key Genetic Trigger Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Identified - also here
  22. November 29, 2007 - 'Stereo' Mammography Improves Cancer Detection - also here, here
  23. November 29, 2007 - Breast Cancer Risk Elevated In Male BRCA Mutation Carriers
  24. November 29, 2007 - Toxin From Coral-reef Bacteria Could Become Next-generation Cancer Drug
  25. November 29, 2007 - Novel Mechanism For Spread Of Sarcoma Tumors Discovered
  26. November 29, 2007 - Scientists See Breast Cancer Gene Activity from Outside the Body - also here, here
  27. November 30, 2007 - New Microwave Technology Can Be Safely Applied To Cancerous Lung Tumors, Study Suggests
  28. November 30, 2007 - New Model Predicts Breast Cancer Risk In African-American Women
  29. November 30, 2007 - Researchers link enzyme to breast cancer malignancy - also here
  30. November 30, 2007 - New developments in biomarkers for epithelial ovarian cancer
  31. December 1, 2007 - Radar Technology Fights Breast Cancer - also here, here, here
  32. December 2, 2007 - PET/CT Brings New Hope To Patients With Deadly Form Of Breast Cancer
Background


Parkinson's disease

References:
  1. November 26, 2007 - Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Against Parkinson's, Study Says - also here
Background


Nanoparticle drug delivery for cancer

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - Nanoparticles Enable Surgical Strikes against Cancer
Background, Background, Background


Malaria

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - For Treating Malaria, Less Drugs May Be Best Drugs - also here
  2. November 29, 2007 - Study of malaria parasite in patient blood finds distinct physiological states - also here
  3. November 29, 2007 - Study of malaria parasites reveals new parasitic states
Background


Stem cells

References:
  1. November 27, 2007 - Researchers find evidence of mature heart cell potential in embryonic stem cells
  2. November 28, 2007 - Human embryonic stem-cell work must go on, says researcher
  3. November 29, 2007 - Stem-cell Therapies For Brain More Complicated Than Thought - also here, here
  4. November 30, 2007 - Stem Cells Train Heart Following Heart Attack
  5. November 30, 2007 - Blood Stem Cells Fight Invaders, Study Finds - also here, here
  6. November 30, 2007 - Oosight microscope enables embryonic stem cell breakthrough - also here, here
  7. December 2, 2007 - Genetic Selection Of Target Stem Cell Populations
  8. December 2, 2007 - Human embryonic stem cell-derived bone tissue closes massive skull injury - also here, here
Background


Autism

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Study maps brain abnormalities in autistic children
  2. November 28, 2007 - Novel imaging technique shows gray matter increase in brains of autistic children
  3. November 29, 2007 - Autistic Children May Have Abnormal Functioning Of Mirror Neuron System
Background


Lupus

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Existing Drugs Show Promise For Treating End-stage Renal Disease In Lupus
  2. December 2, 2007 - Lupus gene finding prompts call for more DNA samples - also here, here
Background


Ulcerative colitis

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - New Therapeutic Targets In The Treatment Of Ulcerative Colitis
Background


Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - MRSA in the community: A new threat to children's health?
  2. November 28, 2007 - Hospital superbugs now in nursing homes and the community
  3. November 28, 2007 - Fast way of spotting multidrug resistant bacteria could help stop outbreaks in hospitals - also here
  4. November 28, 2007 - Hospital bugs 'hit communities'
Background, Background


Prediction of drug side-effects

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - A new computational technique predicts side-effects of a major cancer drug
Background


Sirtuin-targeted diabetes drug

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Drug maker packs red-wine-like compound in pill
  2. November 28, 2007 - Red wine mimic can fight diabetes
  3. November 28, 2007 - Sirtris Drug May Slow Aging, Create 'Armstrong' Cells
  4. November 29, 2007 - Sirtris unveils promising, novel SIRT1 activators for treating diseases of aging - also here, here
Background, Background


Inflammation and exercise

References:
  1. November 28, 2007 - Exercise may play role in reducing inflammation in damaged skin tissue - also here
Background


Avian flu

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Wild birds not ruled out as UK bird flu source
  2. November 29, 2007 - Animal health seen crucial in bird flu battle
  3. December 1, 2007 - Deadly H5N1 bird flu found on Polish turkey farms
  4. December 2, 2007 - Chinese man dies of bird flu, first since June
Background


Hepatitis C

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Pill Boosts Platelets In Hepatitis C Patients - also here, here
Background


Autoimmune diseases

References:
  1. November 29, 2007 - Platelet Growth Factor Decreased Bleeding In Patients With The Autoimmune Bleeding Disorder
  2. November 29, 2007 - Recently discovered cell is unexpected player in psoriasis
Background


Skin aging

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Skin patch gives ageing mice a youthful glow
  2. November 30, 2007 - Skin ageing 'reversed' in mice
  3. December 3, 2007 - Skin Aging Reversed In Mice By Blocking Action Of Single Protein
Background


Cannabinoids

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Separating The Therapeutic Benefits Of Cannabis From Its Mood-altering Side-effects
Background


Folate and vitamin B12

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - When It Comes To Vitamins, More Is Not Always Better
Background


Antioxidants

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - Data On Food Antioxidants Aid Research
Background


AIDS

References:
  1. November 30, 2007 - One HIV Subtype More Deadly Than Others - also here, here
  2. December 2, 2007 - Unnoticed Mutation In AIDS Virus Can Cause Drug Resistance
Background


Prions

References:
  1. December 1, 2007 - Levels Of Prion Protein In Brain May Not Be Reliable Marker For Disease - also here
Background


Copyright © 2007 by Charles Daney, All Rights Reserved